Marcia Hultman

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Labor Market Information Center

Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Descriptions

(in SOC code order)

To find the description of an occupation by its SOC code, scroll down to find the code numerically. To more quickly find the correct code, you may want to select the occupational group below to which the occupation belongs; this will take you directly to the appropriate section on the page.

11-0000 Management Occupations

13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations

15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations

17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations

19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations

21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations

23-0000 Legal Occupations

25-0000 Educational Instruction and Library Occupations

27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations

29-0000 Healthcare Practioners and Technical Occupations

31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations

33-0000 Protective Service Occupations

35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations

37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations

39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations

41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations

43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations

45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations

47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations

49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations

51-0000 Production Occupations

53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations

11-0000 Management Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
11-1011 Chief Executives Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.
11-1021 General and Operations Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations, overseeing multiple departments or locations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. Usually manage through subordinate supervisors. Excludes First-Line Supervisors.
11-1031 Legislators Develop, introduce, or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, state, or federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions.
11-2011 Advertising and Promotions Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate advertising policies and programs or produce collateral materials, such as posters, contests, coupons, or giveaways, to create extra interest in the purchase of a product or service for a department, an entire organization, or on an account basis.
11-2021 Marketing Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers. Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm’s profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm’s customers are satisfied. Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.
11-2022 Sales Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer. Coordinate sales distribution by establishing sales territories, quotas, and goals and establish training programs for sales representatives. Analyze sales statistics gathered by staff to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers.
11-2032 Public Relations Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate activities designed to create or maintain a favorable public image or raise issue awareness for their organization or client.
11-2033 Fundraising Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate activities to solicit and maintain funds for special projects or nonprofit organizations.
11-3012 Administrative Services Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, and other office support services. Medical records administrators are included in “Medical and Health Services Managers” (11-9111). Excludes “Facilities Managers” (11-3013) and “Purchasing Managers” (11-3061).
11-3013 Facilities Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate operations and functionalities of facilities and buildings. May include surrounding grounds or multiple facilities of an organization’s campus. Excludes “Administrative Services Managers” (11-3012), “Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers” (11-9141), “First-Line Supervisors of Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Workers” (37-1010), “First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics and Repairers” (49-1011), and “Maintenance and Repair Workers, General” (49-9071).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming. Excludes “Computer Occupations” (15-1211 through 15-1299).
11-3031 Financial Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment. Excludes “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054).
11-3051 Industrial Production Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing products in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications.
11-3061 Purchasing Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of buyers, purchasing officers, and related workers involved in purchasing materials, products, and services. Includes wholesale or retail trade merchandising managers and procurement managers.
11-3071 Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.
11-3111 Compensation and Benefits Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate compensation and benefits activities of an organization. Job analysis and position description managers are included in “Human Resources Managers” (11-3121).
11-3121 Human Resources Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate human resources activities and staff of an organization. Excludes managers who primarily focus on compensation and benefits (11-3111) and training and development (11-3131).
11-3131 Training and Development Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the training and development activities and staff of an organization.
11-9013 Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the management or operation of farms, ranches, greenhouses, aquacultural operations, nurseries, timber tracts, or other agricultural establishments. May hire, train, and supervise farm workers or contract for services to carry out the day-to-day activities of the managed operation. May engage in or supervise planting, cultivating, harvesting, and financial and marketing activities. Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers” (45-1011).
11-9021 Construction Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate, usually through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems. Participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, budgeting, and implementation. Includes managers in specialized construction fields, such as carpentry or plumbing.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
11-9031 Education and Childcare Administrators, Preschool and Daycare Plan, direct, or coordinate academic or nonacademic activities of preschools or childcare centers and programs, including before- and after-school care. Excludes “Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education” (25-2011) and “Childcare Workers” (39-9011).
11-9032 Education Administrators, Kindergarten through Secondary Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of kindergarten, elementary, or secondary schools.
11-9033 Education Administrators, Postsecondary Plan, direct, or coordinate student instruction, administration, and services, as well as other research and educational activities, at postsecondary institutions, including universities, colleges, and junior and community colleges.
11-9039 Education Administrators, All Other All education administrators not listed separately.
11-9041 Architectural and Engineering Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields. Excludes “Natural Sciences Managers” (11-9121).
11-9051 Food Service Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages. Excludes “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).
11-9071 Gambling Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate gambling operations in a casino. May formulate house rules.
11-9072 Entertainment and Recreation Managers, Except Gambling Plan, direct, or coordinate entertainment and recreational activities and operations of a recreational facility, including cruise ships and parks.
11-9081 Lodging Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that provides lodging and other accommodations. Excludes “Food Service Managers” (11-9051) in lodging establishments.
11-9111 Medical and Health Services Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate medical and health services in hospitals, clinics, managed care organizations, public health agencies, or similar organizations.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
11-9121 Natural Sciences Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields. Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021) and “Architecture and Engineering Managers” (11-9041).
11-9131 Postmasters and Mail Superintendents Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and support services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.
11-9141 Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the selling, buying, leasing, or governance activities of commercial, industrial, or residential real estate properties. Includes managers of homeowner and condominium associations, rented or leased housing units, buildings, or land (including rights-of-way).
11-9151 Social and Community Service Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of a social service program or community outreach organization. Oversee the program or organization’s budget and policies regarding participant involvement, program requirements, and benefits. Work may involve directing social workers, counselors, or probation officers.
11-9161 Emergency Management Directors Plan and direct disaster response or crisis management activities, provide disaster preparedness training, and prepare emergency plans and procedures for natural (e.g., hurricanes, floods, earthquakes), wartime, or technological (e.g., nuclear power plant emergencies or hazardous materials spills) disasters or hostage situations.
11-9171 Funeral Home Managers Plan, direct, or coordinate the services or resources of funeral homes. Includes activities such as determining prices for services or merchandise and managing the facilities of funeral homes. Excludes “Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Arrangers” (39-4031).
11-9179 Personal Service Managers, All Other All personal service managers not listed separately. Excludes “Financial Specialists” (13-2000). Daycare Managers are included in Education and Childcare Administrators, Preschool and Daycare (11-9031).
11-9199 Managers, All Other All managers not listed separately.
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13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
13-1011 Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes Represent and promote artists, performers, and athletes in dealings with current or prospective employers. May handle contract negotiation and other business matters for clients.
13-1020 Buyers and Purchasing Agents (SOC broad occupation consisting of 13-1021, 13-1022, and 13-1023) Purchase good or services for further processing, resale, or to enable operation of an establishment. May analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of goods or services. May select, order, and authorize payment according to contractual agreements. May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products.
13-1021 Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products Purchase farm products either for further processing or resale. Includes tree farm contractors, grain brokers and market operators, grain buyers, and tobacco buyers. May negotiate contracts.
13-1022 Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products Buy merchandise or commodities, other than farm products, for resale to consumers at the wholesale or retail level, including both durable and nondurable goods. Analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of merchandise to determine value and yield. Select, order, and authorize payment for merchandise according to contractual agreements. May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products. May negotiate contracts. Includes assistant wholesale and retail buyers of nonfarm products. Excludes “Procurement Clerks” (43-3061).
13-1023 Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products Purchase machinery, equipment, tools, parts, supplies, or services necessary for the operation of an establishment. Purchase raw or semifinished materials for manufacturing. May negotiate contracts. Excludes “Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products” (13-1021) and “Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products” (13-1022).
13-1031 Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators Review settled claims to determine that payments and settlements are made in accordance with company practices and procedures. Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation. May also settle insurance claims. Excludes “Fire Inspectors and Investigators” (33-2021).
13-1032 Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage Appraise automobile or other vehicle damage to determine repair costs for insurance claim settlement. Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost or cost estimates and recommendations. May seek agreement with automotive repair shop on repair costs.
13-1041 Compliance Officers Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere. Excludes “Financial Examiners" (13-2061), “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (19-5011), “Occupational Health and Safety Technicians” (19-5012), “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093), “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011), “Construction and Building Inspectors” (47-4011), and “Transportation Inspectors” (53-6051).
13-1051 Cost Estimators Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.
13-1071 Human Resources Specialists Recruit, screen, interview, or place individuals within an organization. May perform other activities in multiple human resources areas. Excludes “Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists” (13-1141) and “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
13-1074 Farm Labor Contractors Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers. May transport, house, and provide meals for workers.
13-1075 Labor Relations Specialists Resolve disputes between workers and managers, negotiate collective bargaining agreements, or coordinate grievance procedures to handle employee complaints. Excludes equal employment opportunity (EEO) officers, who are included in “Compliance Officers” (13-1041).
13-1081 Logisticians Analyze and coordinate the ongoing logistical functions of a firm or organization. Responsible for the entire life cycle of a product, including acquisition, distribution, internal allocation, delivery, and final disposal of resources. Excludes “Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers” (11-3071) and “Project Management Specialists” (13-1082).
13-1082 Project Management Specialists Analyze and coordinate the schedule, timeline, procurement, staffing, and budget of a product or service on a per project basis. Lead and guide the work of technical staff. May serve as a point of contact for the client or customer. Excludes “Management Occupations” (11-0000), “Logisticians” (13-1081), “Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners” (13-1121), and “Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks” (43-5061).
13-1111 Management Analysts Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively. Includes program analysts and management consultants. Excludes “Computer Systems Analysts” (15-1211) and “Operations Research Analysts” (15-2031).
13-1121 Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.
13-1131 Fundraisers Organize activities to raise funds or otherwise solicit and gather monetary donations or other gifts for an organization. May design and produce promotional materials. May also raise awareness of the organization’s work, goals, and financial needs.
13-1141 Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer. May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.
13-1151 Training and Development Specialists Design or conduct work-related training and development programs to improve individual skills or organizational performance. May analyze organizational training needs or evaluate training effectiveness. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1194) and “Other Teachers and Instructors” (25-3000). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
13-1161 Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists Research conditions in local, regional, national, or online markets. Gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or plan a marketing or advertising campaign. May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. May employ search marketing tactics, analyze web metrics, and develop recommendations to increase search engine ranking and visibility to target markets. Excludes “Web and Digital Interface Designers” (15-1255), “Art Directors” (27-1011), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), and “Public Relations Specialists” (27-3031).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
13-1199 Business Operations Specialists, All Other All business operations specialists not listed separately.
13-2011 Accountants and Auditors Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others. Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data. Excludes “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081).
13-2020 Property Appraisers and Assessors (SOC broad occupation consisting of 13-2022 and 13-2023) Appraise and estimate the fair value of real estate, or tangible personal or business property, such as jewelry, art, antiques, collectibles, and equipment. May also appraise land or assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules. Excludes "Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Invesigators" (13-1031), "Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage" (13-1032), and Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents" (13-2081)
13-2022 Appraisers of Personal and Business Property Appraise and estimate the fair value of tangible personal or business property, such as jewelry, art, antiques, collectibles, and equipment. Includes workers who appraise both personal and business property as well as real estate. May also appraise land. Excludes “Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators” (13-1031), “Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage” (13-1032), “Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate” (13-2023), and “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081).
13-2023 Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate Appraise real estate, exclusively, and estimate its fair value. May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules. Excludes “Appraisers of Personal and Business Property” (13-2022).
13-2031 Budget Analysts Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Analyze budgeting and accounting reports. Excludes “Financial and Investment Analysts” (13-2051).
13-2041 Credit Analysts Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decisionmaking. Excludes “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054).
13-2051 Financial and Investment Analysts Conduct quantitative analyses of information involving investment programs or financial data of public or private institutions, including valuation of businesses. Excludes “Budget Analysts” (13-2031), “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054), and “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031).
13-2052 Personal Financial Advisors Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate. Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives. May also buy and sell financial assets for clients. Excludes “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031).
13-2053 Insurance Underwriters Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
13-2054 Financial Risk Specialists Analyze and measure exposure to credit and market risk threatening the assets, earning capacity, or economic state of an organization. May make recommendations to limit risk. Excludes “Credit Analysts” (13-2041).
13-2061 Financial Examiners Enforce or ensure compliance with laws and regulations governing financial and securities institutions and financial and real estate transactions. May examine, verify, or authenticate records.
13-2071 Credit Counselors Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explain loan requirements or restrictions. May help develop debt management plans or student financial aid packages. May advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, bankruptcy, or student financial aid counseling.
13-2072 Loan Officers Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods. Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, loan underwriters, and payday loan officers.
13-2081 Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.
13-2082 Tax Preparers Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses. Excludes “Accountants and Auditors” (13-2011).
13-2099 Financial Specialists, All Other All financial specialists not listed separately.
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15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
15-1211 Computer Systems Analysts Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to develop and implement solutions to complex applications problems, system administration issues, or network concerns. Perform systems management and integration functions, improve existing computer systems, and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and schedule limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software.
15-1217 Computer Systems Analysts, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to develop and implement solutions to complex applications problems, system administration issues, or network concerns. Perform systems management and integration functions, improve exisiting computer systems, and review computer system capabilities, workflow and schedule limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software. Illustrative examples: Applications Analyst, Data Processing Systems Analyst, Information Systems Analyst, Systems Architect.
15-1228 Computer Systems Analysts, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities related to their work as Computer Systems Analysts.
15-1212 Information Security Analysts Plan, implement, upgrade, or monitor security measures for the protection of computer networks and information. Assess system vulnerabilities for security risks and propose and implement risk mitigation strategies. May ensure appropriate security controls are in place that will safeguard digital files and vital electronic infrastructure. May respond to computer security breaches and viruses. Excludes “Computer Network Architects” (15-1241).
15-1221 Computer and Information Research Scientists Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software.
15-1231 Computer Network Support Specialists Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), cloud networks, servers, and other data communications networks. Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption. Excludes “Computer Network Architects” (15-1241) and “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
15-1232 Computer User Support Specialists Provide technical assistance to computer users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, via telephone, or electronically. May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems. Excludes “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
15-1241 Computer Network Architects Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks. Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning, including analysis of capacity needs for network infrastructures. May also design network and computer security measures. May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1212), “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1231), and “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
15-1247 Computer Network Architects, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks. Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning, including analysis of capacity needs for network infrastructures. May also design network and computer security measures. May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes "Information Security Analysts" (15-1212), "Computer Network Support Specialists" (15-1231), and "Network and Computer Systems Administrators" (15-1244). Illustrative examples: Computer Network Engineers, Network Designers, Network Developers.
15-1248 Computer Network Architects, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities involving computer and information networks.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
15-1242 Database Administrators Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems. Coordinate changes to computer databases. Identify, investigate, and resolve database performance issues, database capacity, and database scalability. May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases. Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1212) and “Database Architects” (15-1243).
15-1243 Database Architects Design strategies for enterprise databases, data warehouse systems, and multidimensional networks. Set standards for database operations, programming, query processes, and security. Model, design, and construct large relational databases or data warehouses. Create and optimize data models for warehouse infrastructure and workflow. Integrate new systems with existing warehouse structure and refine system performance and functionality. Excludes “Database Administrators” (15-1242).
15-1244 Network and Computer Systems Administrators Install, configure, and maintain an organization’s local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), data communications network, operating systems, and physical and virtual servers. Perform system monitoring and verify the integrity and availability of hardware, network, and server resources and systems. Review system and application logs and verify completion of scheduled jobs, including system backups. Analyze network and server resource consumption and control user access. Install and upgrade software and maintain software licenses. May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1212), “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1231), and “Computer User Support Specialists” (15-1232).
15-1251 Computer Programmers Create, modify, and test the code and scripts that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software and web developers or other individuals. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.
15-1293 Computer Programmers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112-and 6113) Create, modify, and test the code and scripts that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software and web developers or other individuals. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information. Illustrative examples: Applications Programmer, Computer Language Coder, IT Programmer, Systems Programmer.
15-1294 Computer Programmers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112  and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to computer programming.
15-1252 Software Developers Research, design, and develop computer and network software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Update software or enhance existing software capabilities. May work with computer hardware engineers to integrate hardware and software systems, and develop specifications and performance requirements. May maintain databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team.
15-1295 Software Developers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Research, design, and develop computer and network software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Update software or enhance existing software capabilities. May work with computer hardware engineers to integrate hardware and software systems, and develop specifications and performance requirements. May maintain databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team. Illustrative examples: Computer Applications Engineer, Computer Systems Engineer, Mobile Applications Developer, Software Applications Architect, Software Engineer, Systems Software Developer. 
15-1296 Software Developers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Software Developers.
15-1253 Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers Develop and execute software tests to identify software problems and their causes. Test system modifications to prepare for implementation. Document software and application defects using a bug tracking system and report defects to software or web developers. Create and maintain databases of known defects. May participate in software design reviews to provide input on functional requirements, operational characteristics, product designs, and schedules.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
15-1297 Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Develop and execute software tests to identify software problems and their causes. Test system modifications to prepare for implementation. Document software and application defects using a bug tracking system and report defects to software or web developers. Create and maintain databases of known defects. May participate in software design reviews to provide input on functional requirements, operational characteristics, product designs, and schedules. Illustrative examples: Applications Tester, Software Quality Assurance Technician, Software Quality Control Specialist, Software Quality Engineer, Software Test Engineer.
15-1298 Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers.
15-1254 Web Developers Develop and implement websites, web applications, application databases, and interactive web interfaces. Evaluate code to ensure that it is properly structured, meets industry standards, and is compatible with browsers and devices. Optimize website performance, scalability, and server-side code and processes. May develop website infrastructure and integrate websites with other computer applications. Excludes “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014).
15-1255 Web and Digital Interface Designers Design digital user interfaces or websites. Develop and test layouts, interfaces, functionality, and navigation menus to ensure compatibility and usability across browsers or devices. May use web framework applications as well as client-side code and processes. May evaluate web design following web and accessibility standards, and may analyze web use metrics and optimize websites for marketability and search engine ranking. May design and test interfaces that facilitate the human-computer interaction and maximize the usability of digital devices, websites, and software with a focus on aesthetics and design. May create graphics used in websites and manage website content and links. Excludes “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014) and “Graphic Designers” (27-1024).
15-1299 Computer Occupations, All Other All computer occupations not listed separately. Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021), “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061), “Electrical and Electronics Engineers” (17-2070), “Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021), “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021), and “Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers” (49-2011).
15-2011 Actuaries Analyze statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits. May ascertain insurance rates required and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.
15-2021 Mathematicians Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.
15-2031 Operations Research Analysts Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decisionmaking, policy formulation, or other managerial functions. May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, services, or products. May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation.
15-2041 Statisticians Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information. May specialize in fields such as biostatistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics. Includes mathematical and survey statisticians. Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).
15-2051 Data Scientists Develop and implement a set of techniques or analytics applications to transform raw data into meaningful information using data-oriented programming languages and visualization software. Apply data mining, data modeling, natural language processing, and machine learning to extract and analyze information from large structured and unstructured datasets. Visualize, interpret, and report data findings. May create dynamic data reports. Excludes “Statisticians” (15-2041), “Cartographers and Photogrammetrists” (17-1021), and “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021).
15-2099 Mathematical Science Occupations, All Other All mathematical scientists not listed separately.
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17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
17-1011 Architects, Except Landscape and Naval Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property. Excludes “Landscape Architects” (17-1012) and “Marine Engineers and Naval Architects” (17-2121).
17-1012 Landscape Architects Plan and design land areas for projects such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites.
17-1021 Cartographers and Photogrammetrists Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for one or more purposes, such as legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems. May collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data.
17-1022 Surveyors Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth’s surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.
17-2011 Aerospace Engineers Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.
17-2021 Agricultural Engineers Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.
17-2031 Bioengineers and Biomedical Engineers Apply knowledge of engineering, biology, chemistry, computer science, and biomechanical principles to the design, development, and evaluation of biological, agricultural, and health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation, medical information systems, and heath management and care delivery systems.
17-2041 Chemical Engineers Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products, such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp, by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.
17-2051 Civil Engineers Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, and geotechnical engineers. Excludes “Hydrologists” (19-2043).
17-2052 Civil Engineers, Non R&D (use only for NAICS 6112 and 6113) Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, and geotechnical engineers. Excludes “Hydrologists” (19-2043). Illustrative examples: Bridge Engineers, Construction Engineers, Highway Engineers.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
17-2053 Civil Engineers,  R&D (use only for NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Civil Engineers.
17-2061 Computer Hardware Engineers Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components. Excludes “Software Developers” (15-1252) and “Web Developers” (15-1254).
17-2062 Computer Hardware Engineers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components. Excludes “Software Developers” (15-1252) and “Web Developers” (15-1254). Illustrative examples: Computer Hardware Designers, Computer Hardware Developers.
17-2063 Computer Hardware Engineers,  R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Computer Hardware Engineers.
17-2071 Electrical Engineers Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061).
17-2073 Electrical Engineers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061).  Illustrative examples: Electrical Systems Engineer, Illuminating Engineer, Power Distribution Engineer.
17-2074 Electrical Engineers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Electrical Engineers.
17-2072 Electronics Engineers, Except Computer Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061).
17-2075 Electronics Engineers, Except Computer Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061). Illustrative examples: Circuit Design Engineers, Electronic Design Automation Engineers, and Telecommunication Engineers.
17-2076 Electronics Engineers, Except Computer R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Electronics Engineers, Except Computer. Exclude "Computer Hardware Engineers, R&D" (17-2063).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
17-2081 Environmental Engineers Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines. Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology.
17-2111 Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws. Includes industrial product safety engineers.
17-2112 Industrial Engineers Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination. Excludes “Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors” (17-2111).
17-2121 Marine Engineers and Naval Architects Design, develop, and evaluate the operation of marine vessels, ship machinery, and related equipment, such as power supply and propulsion systems.
17-2131 Materials Engineers Evaluate materials and develop machinery and processes to manufacture materials for use in products that must meet specialized design and performance specifications. Develop new uses for known materials. Includes those engineers working with composite materials or specializing in one type of material, such as graphite, metal and metal alloys, ceramics and glass, plastics and polymers, and naturally occurring materials. Includes metallurgists and metallurgical engineers, ceramic engineers, and welding engineers.
17-2141 Mechanical Engineers Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.
17-2143 Mechanical Engineers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems. Illustrative examples: Combustion Engineers, Engine Designers, Heathing and Cooling Systems Engineers, Tool and Die Engineers.
17-2144 Mechanical Engineers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Mechanical Engineers.
17-2151 Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers Conduct subsurface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites. May specify the ground support systems, processes, and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities. May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions. May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs. Excludes “Petroleum Engineers” (17-2171).
17-2161 Nuclear Engineers Conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
17-2171 Petroleum Engineers Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice.
17-2199 Engineers, All Other All engineers not listed separately. Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031), “Locomotive Engineers” (53-4011), and “Ship Engineers” (53-5031).
17-3011 Architectural and Civil Drafters Prepare detailed drawings of architectural and structural features of buildings or drawings and topographical relief maps used in civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and public works. Use knowledge of building materials, engineering practices, and mathematics to complete drawings.
17-3012 Electrical and Electronics Drafters Prepare wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used for the manufacture, installation, or repair of electrical equipment.
17-3013 Mechanical Drafters Prepare detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information.
17-3019 Drafters, All Other All drafters not listed separately.
17-3021 Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technologists and Technicians Operate, install, adjust, and maintain integrated computer/communications systems, consoles, simulators, and other data acquisition, test, and measurement instruments and equipment, which are used to launch, track, position, and evaluate air and space vehicles. May record and interpret test data.
17-3022 Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
17-3023 Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologists and Technicians Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, adjust, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions. Excludes “Broadcast Technicians” (27-4012).
17-3024 Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians Operate, test, maintain, or adjust unmanned, automated, servomechanical, or electromechanical equipment. May operate unmanned submarines, aircraft, or other equipment to observe or record visual information at sites such as oil rigs, crop fields, buildings, or for similar infrastructure, deep ocean exploration, or hazardous waste removal. May assist engineers in testing and designing robotics equipment.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
17-3025 Environmental Engineering Technologists and Technicians Apply theory and principles of environmental engineering to modify, test, and operate equipment and devices used in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental problems, including waste treatment and site remediation, under the direction of engineering staff or scientists. May assist in the development of environmental remediation devices.
17-3026 Industrial Engineering Technologists and Technicians Apply engineering theory and principles to problems of industrial layout or manufacturing production, usually under the direction of engineering staff. May perform time and motion studies on worker operations in a variety of industries for purposes such as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency.
17-3027 Mechanical Engineering Technologists and Technicians Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to modify, develop, test, or adjust machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
17-3028 Calibration Technologists and Technicians Execute or adapt procedures and techniques for calibrating measurement devices, by applying knowledge of measurement science, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and electronics, sometimes under the direction of engineering staff. Determine measurement standard suitability for calibrating measurement devices. May perform preventive maintenance on equipment. May perform corrective actions to address identified calibration problems. Excludes “Medical Equipment Preparers” (31-9093) and “Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters” (51-2061).
17-3029 Engineering Technologists and Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other All engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters, not listed separately.
17-3031 Surveying and Mapping Technicians Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetrist, to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features. May verify accuracy and completeness of maps. Excludes “Cartographers and Photogrammetrists” (17-1021), “Surveyors" (17-1022), and “Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers” (19-2042).
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19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
19-1011 Animal Scientists Conduct research in the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals.
19-1012 Food Scientists and Technologists Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.
19-1013 Soil and Plant Scientists Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity.
19-1021 Biochemists and Biophysicists Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.
19-1022 Microbiologists Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.
19-1023 Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management. May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.
19-1029 Biological Scientists, All Other All biological scientists not listed separately.
19-1031 Conservation Scientists Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment. May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands. May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering. Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists” (19-1023) and “Foresters” (19-1032).
19-1032 Foresters Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes. May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber’s worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement. May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations. May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.
19-1041 Epidemiologists Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes. May develop the means for prevention and control.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
19-1042 Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research. Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in “Healthcare Diagnosing or Treating Practitioners” (29-1000).
19-1099 Life Scientists, All Other All life scientists not listed separately.
19-2011 Astronomers Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.
19-2012 Physicists Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories. Excludes “Biochemists and Biophysicists” (19-1021).
19-2021 Atmospheric and Space Scientists Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses. Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology.
19-2031 Chemists Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge. Excludes “Biochemists and Biophysicists” (19-1021) and “Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers” (19-2042).
19-2032 Materials Scientists Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass. Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.
19-2041 Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or public health. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources. Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists” (19-1023), “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031), “Forest and Conservation Technicians” (19-4071), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (19-5011), “Fish and Game Wardens” (33-3031), and “Forest and Conservation Workers” (45-4011).
19-2042 Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth’s internal composition, atmospheres, and oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.
19-2043 Hydrologists Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation and its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and return to the ocean and atmosphere.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
19-2099 Physical Scientists, All Other All physical scientists not listed separately.
19-3011 Economists Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy. May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods. Excludes “Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists” (13-1161).
19-3022 Survey Researchers Plan, develop, or conduct surveys. May analyze and interpret the meaning of survey data, determine survey objectives, or suggest or test question wording. Includes social scientists who primarily design questionnaires or supervise survey teams. Excludes “Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists” (13-1161) and “Statisticians” (15-2041).
19-3032 Industrial-Organizational Psychologists Apply principles of psychology to human resources, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems. Activities may include policy planning; employee testing and selection, training, and development; and organizational development and analysis. May work with management to organize the work setting to improve worker productivity.
19-3033 Clinical and Counseling Psychologists Assess, diagnose, and treat mental and emotional disorders of individuals through observation, interview, and psychological tests. Help individuals with distress or maladjustment understand their problems through their knowledge of case history, interviews with patients, and theory. Provide individual or group counseling services to assist individuals in achieving more effective personal, social, educational, and vocational development and adjustment. May design behavior modification programs and consult with medical personnel regarding the best treatment for patients. Excludes “Psychiatrists” (29-1223).
19-3034 School Psychologists Diagnose and implement individual or schoolwide interventions or strategies to address educational, behavioral, or developmental issues that adversely impact educational functioning in a school. May address student learning and behavioral problems and counsel students or families. May design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performance. May consult with other school-based personnel.
19-3039 Psychologists, All Other All psychologists not listed separately.
19-3041 Sociologists Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.
19-3051 Urban and Regional Planners Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.
19-3091 Anthropologists and Archeologists Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings. May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
19-3092 Geographers Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth’s surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena. Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.
19-3093 Historians Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters.
19-3094 Political Scientists Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. May study topics, such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideology. May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities. May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).
19-3099 Social Scientists and Related Workers, All Other All social scientists and related workers not listed separately.
19-4012 Agricultural Technicians Work with agricultural scientists in plant, fiber, and animal research, or assist with animal breeding and nutrition. Set up or maintain laboratory equipment and collect samples from crops or animals. Prepare specimens or record data to assist scientists in biology or related life science experiments. Conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects.
19-4013 Food Science Technicians Work with food scientists or technologists to perform standardized qualitative and quantitative tests to determine physical or chemical properties of food or beverage products. Includes technicians who assist in research and development of production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and use of foods.
19-4021 Biological Technicians Assist biological and medical scientists. Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, collect data and samples, make observations, and calculate and record results. May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs.
19-4031 Chemical Technicians Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.
19-4042 Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist. May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing.
19-4043 Geological Technicians, Except Hydrologic Technicians Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in laboratory, exploration, and production activities to obtain data indicating resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum. Analyze mud and drill cuttings. Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
19-4044 Hydrologic Technicians Collect and organize data concerning the distribution and circulation of ground and surface water, and data on its physical, chemical, and biological properties. Measure and report on flow rates and ground water levels, maintain field equipment, collect water samples, install and collect sampling equipment, and process samples for shipment to testing laboratories. May collect data on behalf of hydrologists, engineers, developers, government agencies, or agriculture. Excludes “Hydrologists” (19-2043).
19-4051 Nuclear Technicians Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory, power generation, or electricity production activities. May operate, maintain, or provide quality control for nuclear testing and research equipment. May monitor radiation.
19-4061 Social Science Research Assistants Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research. May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management. Excludes “Teaching Assistants, Postsecondary” (25-9044).
19-4071 Forest and Conservation Technicians Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts under the direction of foresters, or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation and fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031) and “Foresters” (19-1032).
19-4092 Forensic Science Technicians Collect, identify, classify, and analyze physical evidence related to criminal investigations. Perform tests on weapons or substances, such as fiber, hair, and tissue to determine significance to investigation. May testify as expert witnesses on evidence or crime laboratory techniques. May serve as specialists in area of expertise, such as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, or biochemistry.
19-4099 Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately.
19-5011 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists Review, evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors. May conduct inspections and enforce adherence to laws and regulations governing the health and safety of individuals. May be employed in the public or private sector.
19-5012 Occupational Health and Safety Technicians Collect data on work environments for analysis by occupational health and safety specialists. Implement and conduct evaluation of programs designed to limit chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic risks to workers.
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21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
21-1012 Educational, Guidance, and Career Counselors and Advisors Advise and assist students and provide educational and vocational guidance services.
21-1013 Marriage and Family Therapists Diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems. Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories and techniques in the delivery of services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders. Excludes “Psychologists” (19-3031 through 19-3039) and “Social Workers” (21-1020).
21-1015 Rehabilitation Counselors Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, aging, or the stress of daily life. Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities. Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement. Excludes “Occupational Therapists” (29-1122).
21-1018 Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder and Mental Health Counselors (OEWS-specific aggregation of SOC codes 21-1011 and 21-1014) Counsel and advise individuals, families, or groups with substance abluse problems, behavioral disorders, or a broad range of mental health issues in order to promote optimum mental and emotional health. Counsel with an emphasis on prevention. Excludes "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039), "Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029) "Psychiatrists" (29-1066) providing these services.
21-1011 Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors (Optional estimates rolled up to 21-1018) Counsel and advise individuals with alcohol, tobacco, drug, or other problems, such as gambling and eating disorders. May counsel individuals, families, or groups or engage in prevention programs. Excludes “Psychologists” (19-3031 through 19-3039), “Mental Health Counselors” (21-1014), and “Social Workers” (21-1021 through 21-1029) providing these services. Illustrative examples: Addiction Counselor, Alcohol and Drug Counselor, Chemical Dependency Counselor.
21-1014 Mental Health Counselors (Optional estimates rolled up to 21-1018) Counsel and advise individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health, with an emphasis on prevention. May help individuals deal with a broad range of mental health issues, such as those associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; or aging. Excludes “Psychologists” (19-3030), “Social Workers” (21-1020), and “Psychiatrists” (29-1223). Illustrative examples: Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor (LCMHC), Licensed Mental Heal Counselor (LMHC).
21-1019 Counselors, All Other All counselors not listed separately.
21-1021 Child, Family, and School Social Workers Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children. May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also advise teachers.
21-1022 Healthcare Social Workers Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses. Services include advising family caregivers. Provide patients with information and counseling, and make referrals for other services. May also provide case and care management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare.
21-1023 Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs. Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
21-1029 Social Workers, All Other All social workers not listed separately.
21-1091 Health Education Specialists Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles. Use data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments. May link health systems, health providers, insurers, and patients to address individual and population health needs. May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs. Excludes “Community Health Workers” (21-1094).
21-1092 Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists Provide social services to assist in rehabilitation of law offenders in custody or on probation or parole. Make recommendations for actions involving formulation of rehabilitation plan and treatment of offender, including conditional release and education and employment stipulations.
21-1093 Social and Human Service Assistants Assist other social and human service providers in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families. May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services. May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care. Excludes “Rehabilitation Counselors” (21-1015), “Psychiatric Technicians” (29-2053), “Personal Care Aides” (31-1122), and “Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs” (43-4061).
21-1094 Community Health Workers Promote health within a community by assisting individuals to adopt healthy behaviors. Serve as an advocate for the health needs of individuals by assisting community residents in effectively communicating with healthcare providers or social service agencies. Act as liaison or advocate and implement programs that promote, maintain, and improve individual and overall community health. May deliver health-related preventive services such as blood pressure, glaucoma, and hearing screenings. May collect data to help identify community health needs. Excludes “Health Education Specialists” (21-1091).
21-1099 Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other All community and social service specialists not listed separately.
21-2011 Clergy Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.
21-2021 Directors, Religious Activities and Education Coordinate or design programs and conduct outreach to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling, guidance, and leadership relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.
21-2099 Religious Workers, All Other All religious workers not listed separately.
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23-0000 Legal Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
23-1011 Lawyers Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions. May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law.
23-1012 Judicial Law Clerks Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents. Excludes “Lawyers” (23-1011) and “Paralegals and Legal Assistants” (23-2011).
23-1021 Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters. Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements. Excludes “Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators” (23-1022).
23-1022 Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators Facilitate negotiation and conflict resolution through dialogue. Resolve conflicts outside of the court system by mutual consent of parties involved.
23-1023 Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law. May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. May perform wedding ceremonies.
23-2011 Paralegals and Legal Assistants Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent. Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action. Excludes “Legal Secretaries and Administrative Assistants” (43-6012).
23-2093 Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies. Excludes “Loan Officers” (13-2072).
23-2099 Legal Support Workers, All Other All legal support workers not listed separately.
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25-0000 Educational Instruction and Library Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
25-1011 Business Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in business administration and management, such as accounting, finance, human resources, labor and industrial relations, marketing, and operations research. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1021 Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in computer science. May specialize in a field of computer science, such as the design and function of computers or operations and research analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1022 Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to mathematical concepts, statistics, and actuarial science and to the application of original and standardized mathematical techniques in solving specific problems and situations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1031 Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in architecture and architectural design, such as architectural environmental design, interior architecture/design, and landscape architecture. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1032 Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to the application of physical laws and principles of engineering for the development of machines, materials, instruments, processes, and services. Includes teachers of subjects such as chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mineral, and petroleum engineering. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021).
25-1041 Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in the agricultural sciences. Includes teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and agricultural soil conservation. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1043).
25-1042 Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in biological sciences. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1043 Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in forestry and conservation science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Agricultural Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1041) and “Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1053).
25-1051 Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in the physical sciences, except chemistry and physics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1052 Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to the chemical and physical properties and compositional changes of substances. Work may include providing instruction in the methods of qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1042) who teach biochemistry.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
25-1053 Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in environmental science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1043).
25-1054 Physics Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to the laws of matter and energy. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1061 Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in anthropology or archeology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1062 Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to the culture and development of an area, an ethnic group, or any other group, such as Latin American studies, women’s studies, or urban affairs. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1063 Economics Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in economics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1064 Geography Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in geography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1065 Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in political science, international affairs, and international relations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1066 Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in psychology, such as child, clinical, and developmental psychology, and psychological counseling. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1067 Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in sociology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1069 Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other All postsecondary social sciences teachers not listed separately.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
25-1071 Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in health specialties, in fields such as dentistry, laboratory technology, medicine, pharmacy, public health, therapy, and veterinary medicine. Excludes “Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1042) and “Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1072) who teach medical science.
25-1072 Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1081 Education Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to education, such as counseling, curriculum, guidance, instruction, teacher education, and teaching English as a second language. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1082 Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in library science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1111 Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement administration. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1112 Law Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in law. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1113 Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in social work. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1121 Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in drama, music, and the arts including fine and applied art, such as painting and sculpture, or design and crafts. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1122 Communications Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in communications, such as organizational communications, public relations, radio/television broadcasting, and journalism. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1123 English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in English language and literature, including linguistics and comparative literature. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
25-1124 Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary Teach languages and literature courses in languages other than English. Includes teachers of American Sign Language (ASL). Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1125 History Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in human history and historiography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1126 Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in philosophy, religion, and theology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1192 Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1193 Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
25-1194 Career/Technical Education Teachers, Postsecondary Teach vocational courses intended to provide occupational training below the baccalaureate level in subjects such as construction, mechanics/repair, manufacturing, transportation, or cosmetology, primarily to students who have graduated from or left high school. Teaching takes place in public or private schools whose primary business is academic or vocational education. Excludes “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151), “Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors” (25-3011), and postsecondary teachers classified elsewhere in the 25-1000 minor group. Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
25-1199 Postsecondary Teachers, All Other All postsecondary teachers not listed separately.
25-2011 Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education Instruct preschool-aged students, following curricula or lesson plans, in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031), and “Childcare Workers” (39-9011).
25-2012 Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education Teach academic and social skills to kindergarten students. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2021 Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education Teach academic and social skills to students at the elementary school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
25-2022 Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education Teach one or more subjects to students at the middle, intermediate, or junior high school level. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School” (25-2023), “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short Term” (25-3031).
25-2023 Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School Teach occupational, vocational, career, or technical subjects to students at the middle, intermediate, or junior high school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2031 Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education Teach one or more subjects to students at the secondary school level. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School” (25-2032), “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2032 Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School Teach occupational, vocational, career, or technical subjects to students at the secondary school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2051 Special Education Teachers, Preschool Teach academic, social, and life skills to preschool-aged students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2052 Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School (OEWS-specific aggregation of SOC codes 25-2055 and 25-2056) Teach academic, social, and life skills to elementary and kindergarten students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blink or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes "Substitute Teachers, Short-Term" (25-3031).
25-2055 Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten (Optional - estimates rolled up to 25-2052) Teach academic, social, and life skills to kindergarten students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2056 Special Education Teachers, Elementary School  (Optional - estimates rolled up to 25-2052) Teach academic, social, and life skills to elementary school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2057 Special Education Teachers, Middle School Teach academic, social, and life skills to middle school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
25-2058 Special Education Teachers, Secondary School Teach academic, social, and life skills to secondary school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
25-2059 Special Education Teachers, All Other All special education teachers not listed separately.
25-3011 Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors Teach or instruct out-of-school youths and adults in basic education, literacy, or English as a Second Language classes, or in classes for earning a high school equivalency credential.
25-3021 Self-Enrichment Teachers Teach or instruct individuals or groups for the primary purpose of self-enrichment or recreation, rather than for an occupational objective, educational attainment, competition, or fitness. Excludes “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022) and “Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors” (39-9031). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
25-3031 Substitute Teachers, Short-Term Teach students on a short-term basis as a temporary replacement for a regular classroom teacher, typically using the regular teacher’s lesson plan. Excludes long-term substitute teachers who perform all the duties of a regular teacher; these teachers are coded within the 25-1000 or 25-2000 minor groups.
25-3041 Tutors Instruct individual students or small groups of students in academic subjects to support formal class instruction or to prepare students for standardized or admissions tests. Excludes “Postsecondary Teachers” (25-1000), “Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Special Education Teachers” (25-2000), “Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors” (25-3011), and “Self-Enrichment Teachers” (25-3021).
25-3099 Teachers and Instructors, All Other All teachers and instructors not listed separately.
25-4011 Archivists Appraise, edit, and direct safekeeping of permanent records and historically valuable documents. Participate in research activities based on archival materials.
25-4012 Curators Administer collections, such as artwork, collectibles, historic items, or scientific specimens of museums or other institutions. May conduct instructional, research, or public service activities of institution.
25-4013 Museum Technicians and Conservators Restore, maintain, or prepare objects in museum collections for storage, research, or exhibit. May work with specimens such as fossils, skeletal parts, or botanicals; or artifacts, textiles, or art. May identify and record objects or install and arrange them in exhibits. Includes book or document conservators.
25-4022 Librarians and Media Collections Specialists Administer and maintain libraries or collections of information, for public or private access through reference or borrowing. Work in a variety of settings, such as educational institutions, museums, and corporations, and with various types of informational materials, such as books, periodicals, recordings, films, and databases. Tasks may include acquiring, cataloging, and circulating library materials, and user services such as locating and organizing information, providing instruction on how to access information, and setting up and operating a library’s media equipment.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
25-4031 Library Technicians Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process. Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files. Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.
25-9021 Farm and Home Management Educators Instruct and advise individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home management activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to advance agricultural and home management activities. May develop educational outreach programs. May instruct on either agricultural issues such as agricultural processes and techniques, pest management, and food safety, or on home management issues such as budgeting, nutrition, and child development. Excludes “Dietitians and Nutritionists” (29-1031).
25-9031 Instructional Coordinators Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology into instruction in order to provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses. May train and coach teachers. Includes educational consultants and specialists, and instructional material directors.
25-9042 Teaching Assistants, Preschool, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary School, Except Special Education Assist a preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher with instructional duties. Serve in a position for which a teacher has primary responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services. Excludes “Teaching Assistants, Special Education” (25-9043).
25-9043 Teaching Assistants, Special Education Assist a preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher to provide academic, social, or life skills to students who have learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Serve in a position for which a teacher has primary responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services.
25-9044 Teaching Assistants, Postsecondary Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing instructional support activities, such as developing teaching materials, leading discussion groups, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Graduate students who teach one or more full courses should be classified in the 25-1000 minor group.
25-9049 Teaching Assistants, All Other All teaching assistants not listed separately.
25-9099 Educational Instruction and Library Workers, All Other All educational instruction and library workers not listed separately.
27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
27-1011 Art Directors Formulate design concepts and presentation approaches for visual productions and media, such as print, broadcasting, video, and film. Direct workers engaged in artwork or layout design. Excludes “Set and Exhibit Designers” (27-1027).
27-1012 Craft Artists Create or reproduce handmade objects for sale and exhibition using a variety of techniques, such as welding, weaving, pottery, and needlecraft.
27-1013 Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators Create original artwork using any of a wide variety of media and techniques.
27-1014 Special Effects Artists and Animators Create special effects or animations using film, video, computers, or other electronic tools and media for use in products, such as computer games, movies, music videos, and commercials.
27-1019 Artists and Related Workers, All Other All artists and related workers not listed separately.
27-1021 Commercial and Industrial Designers Design and develop manufactured products, such as cars, home appliances, and children’s toys. Combine artistic talent with research on product use, marketing, and materials to create the most functional and appealing product design.
27-1022 Fashion Designers Design clothing and accessories. Create original designs or adapt fashion trends.
27-1023 Floral Designers Design, cut, and arrange live, dried, or artificial flowers and foliage.
27-1024 Graphic Designers Design or create graphics to meet specific commercial or promotional needs, such as packaging, displays, or logos. May use a variety of mediums to achieve artistic or decorative effects. Excludes “Web and Digital Interface Designers” (15-1255).
27-1025 Interior Designers Plan, design, and furnish the internal space of rooms or buildings. Design interior environments or create physical layouts that are practical, aesthetic, and conducive to the intended purposes. May specialize in a particular field, style, or phase of interior design. Excludes “Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers” (27-1026).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
27-1026 Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.
27-1027 Set and Exhibit Designers Design special exhibits and sets for film, video, television, and theater productions. May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.
27-1029 Designers, All Other All designers not listed separately.
27-2011 Actors Play parts in stage, television, radio, video, or film productions, or other settings for entertainment, information, or instruction. Interpret serious or comic role by speech, gesture, and body movement to entertain or inform audience. May dance and sing.
27-2012 Producers and Directors Produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or film productions for entertainment, information, or instruction. Responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of actors or guests, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography.
27-2021 Athletes and Sports Competitors Compete in athletic events.
27-2022 Coaches and Scouts Instruct or coach groups or individuals in the fundamentals of sports for the primary purpose of competition. Demonstrate techniques and methods of participation. May evaluate athletes’ strengths and weaknesses as possible recruits or to improve the athletes’ technique to prepare them for competition. Those required to hold teaching certifications should be reported in the appropriate teaching category. Excludes “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091).
27-2023 Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events. Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations. Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.
27-2031 Dancers Perform dances. May perform on stage, for broadcasting, or for video recording.
27-2032 Choreographers Create new dance routines. Rehearse performance of routines. May direct and stage presentations.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
27-2041 Music Directors and Composers Conduct, direct, plan, and lead instrumental or vocal performances by musical artists or groups, such as orchestras, bands, choirs, and glee clubs; or create original works of music.
27-2042 Musicians and Singers Play one or more musical instruments or sing. May perform on stage, for broadcasting, or for sound or video recording.
27-2091 Disc Jockeys, Except Radio Play prerecorded music for live audiences at venues or events such as clubs, parties, or wedding receptions. May use techniques such as mixing, cutting, or sampling to manipulate recordings. May also perform as emcee (master of ceremonies). Radio disc jockeys are included in “Broadcast Announcers and Radio Disc Jockeys” (27-3011). Excludes “Musicians and Singers” (27-2042), “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011), and “Sound Engineering Technicians” (27-4014).
27-2099 Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other All entertainers and performers, sports and related workers not listed separately.
27-3011 Broadcast Announcers and Radio Disc Jockeys Speak or read from scripted materials, such as news reports or commercial messages, on radio, television, or other communications media. May play and queue music, announce artist or title of performance, identify station, or interview guests. Excludes “News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists” (27-3023).
27-3023 News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists Narrate or write news stories, reviews, or commentary for print, broadcast, or other communications media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, or television. May collect and analyze information through interview, investigation, or observation.
27-3031 Public Relations Specialists Promote or create an intended public image for individuals, groups, or organizations. May write or select material for release to various communications media. May specialize in using social media.
27-3041 Editors Plan, coordinate, revise, or edit written material. May review proposals and drafts for possible publication.
27-3042 Technical Writers Write technical materials, such as equipment manuals, appendices, or operating and maintenance instructions. May assist in layout work.
27-3043 Writers and Authors Originate and prepare written material, such as scripts, stories, advertisements, and other material. Excludes “News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists” (27-3023), “Public Relations Specialists” (27-3031), and “Technical Writers” (27-3042).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
27-3091 Interpreters and Translators Interpret oral or sign language, or translate written text from one language into another.
27-3092 Court Reporters and Simultaneous Captioners Use verbatim methods and equipment to capture, store, retrieve, and transcribe pretrial and trial proceedings or other information. Includes stenocaptioners who operate computerized stenographic captioning equipment to provide captions of live or prerecorded broadcasts for hearing-impaired viewers.
27-3099 Media and Communication Workers, All Other All media and communication workers not listed separately.
27-4011 Audio and Video Technicians Set up, maintain, and dismantle audio and video equipment, such as microphones, sound speakers, connecting wires and cables, sound and mixing boards, video cameras, video monitors and servers, and related electronic equipment for live or recorded events, such as concerts, meetings, conventions, presentations, podcasts, news conferences, and sporting events. Excludes “Sound Engineering Technicians” (27-4014), “Lighting Technicians” (27-4015), and “Audiovisual Equipment Installers and Repairers” (49-2097).
27-4012 Broadcast Technicians Set up, operate, and maintain the electronic equipment used to acquire, edit, and transmit audio and video for radio or television programs. Control and adjust incoming and outgoing broadcast signals to regulate sound volume, signal strength, and signal clarity. Operate satellite, microwave, or other transmitter equipment to broadcast radio or television programs.
27-4014 Sound Engineering Technicians Assemble and operate equipment to record, synchronize, mix, edit, or reproduce sound, including music, voices, or sound effects, for theater, video, film, television, podcasts, sporting events, and other productions. Excludes “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011).
27-4015 Lighting Technicians Set up, maintain, and dismantle light fixtures, lighting control devices, and the associated lighting electrical and rigging equipment used for photography, television, film, video, and live productions. May focus or operate light fixtures, or attach color filters or other lighting accessories. Excludes “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011).
27-4021 Photographers Photograph people, landscapes, merchandise, or other subjects. May use lighting equipment to enhance a subject’s appearance. May use editing software to produce finished images and prints. Includes commercial and industrial photographers, scientific photographers, and photojournalists. Excludes “Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Film” (27-4031).
27-4031 Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Film Operate television, video, or film camera to record images or scenes for television, video, or film productions.
27-4032 Film and Video Editors Edit moving images on film, video, or other media. May work with a producer or director to organize images for final production. May edit or synchronize soundtracks with images. Excludes “Sound Engineering Technicians” (27-4014).
27-4099 Media and Communication Equipment Workers, All Other All media and communication equipment workers not listed separately.
29-0000 Healthcare Practioners and Technical Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-1011 Chiropractors Assess, treat, and care for patients by manipulation of spine and musculoskeletal system. May provide spinal adjustment or address sacral or pelvic misalignment.
29-1021 Dentists, General Examine, diagnose, and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums. May treat diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting oral hygiene and retention of teeth. May fit dental appliances or provide preventive care. Excludes “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons” (29-1022), “Orthodontists” (29-1023), “Prosthodontists” (29-1024), and “Dentists, All Other Specialists” (29-1029).
29-1022 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Perform surgery and related procedures on the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions to treat diseases, injuries, or defects. May diagnose problems of the oral and maxillofacial regions. May perform surgery to improve function or appearance.
29-1023 Orthodontists Examine, diagnose, and treat dental malocclusions and oral cavity anomalies. Design and fabricate appliances to realign teeth and jaws to produce and maintain normal function and to improve appearance.
29-1024 Prosthodontists Diagnose, treat, rehabilitate, design, and fit prostheses that maintain oral function, health, and appearance for patients with clinical conditions associated with teeth, oral and maxillofacial tissues, or the jaw.
29-1029 Dentists, All Other Specialists All dentists not listed separately.
29-1031 Dietitians and Nutritionists Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease. May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.
29-1041 Optometrists Diagnose, manage, and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system. Examine eyes and visual system, diagnose problems or impairments, prescribe corrective lenses, and provide treatment. May prescribe therapeutic drugs to treat specific eye conditions. Ophthalmologists are included in “Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric” (29-1241).
29-1051 Pharmacists Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use. May advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosage, interactions, and side effects of medications.
29-1071 Physician Assistants Provide healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician. Conduct complete physicals, provide treatment, and counsel patients. May, in some cases, prescribe medication. Must graduate from an accredited educational program for physician assistants. Excludes “Registered Nurses” (29-1141), “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171), “Emergency Medical Technicians” (29-2042), “Paramedics” (29-2043), “Surgical Assistants” (29-9093), and “Medical Assistants” (31-9092).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-1081 Podiatrists Diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the human foot.
29-1122 Occupational Therapists Assess, plan, and organize rehabilitative programs that help build or restore vocational, homemaking, and daily living skills, as well as general independence, to persons with disabilities or developmental delays. Use therapeutic techniques, adapt the individual’s environment, teach skills, and modify specific tasks that present barriers to the individual. Excludes “Rehabilitation Counselors” (21-1015).
29-1123 Physical Therapists Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and improve or correct disabling conditions resulting from disease or injury.
29-1124 Radiation Therapists Provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiation oncologist according to established practices and standards. Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and maintaining records, reports, and files. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.
29-1125 Recreational Therapists Plan, direct, or coordinate medically-approved recreation programs for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions. Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities, and crafts. May assess a patient condition and recommend appropriate recreational activity. Excludes “Recreation Workers” (39-9032).
29-1126 Respiratory Therapists Assess, treat, and care for patients with breathing disorders. Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.
29-1127 Speech-Language Pathologists Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. May select alternative communication systems and teach their use. May perform research related to speech and language problems.
29-1128 Exercise Physiologists Assess, plan, or implement fitness programs that include exercise or physical activities such as those designed to improve cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or flexibility. Excludes “Physical Therapists” (29-1123), “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091), and “Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors” (39-9031).
29-1129 Therapists, All Other All therapists not listed separately.
29-1131 Veterinarians Diagnose, treat, or research diseases and injuries of animals. Includes veterinarians who conduct research and development, inspect livestock, or care for pets and companion animals.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-1141 Registered Nurses Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients. May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management. Licensing or registration required. Includes Clinical Nurse Specialists. Excludes “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), and “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171).
29-1151 Nurse Anesthetists Administer anesthesia, monitor patient’s vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia. May assist anesthesiologists, surgeons, other physicians, or dentists. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.
29-1161 Nurse Midwives Diagnose and coordinate all aspects of the birthing process, either independently or as part of a healthcare team. May provide well-woman gynecological care. Must have specialized, graduate nursing education.
29-1171 Nurse Practitioners Diagnose and treat acute, episodic, or chronic illness, independently or as part of a healthcare team. May focus on health promotion and disease prevention. May order, perform, or interpret diagnostic tests such as lab work and x rays. May prescribe medication. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.
29-1181 Audiologists Assess and treat persons with hearing and related disorders. May fit hearing aids and provide auditory training. May perform research related to hearing problems.
29-1211 Anesthesiologists Administer anesthetics and analgesics for pain management prior to, during, or after surgery.
29-1212 Cardiologists Diagnose, treat, manage, and prevent diseases or conditions of the cardiovascular system. May further subspecialize in interventional procedures (e.g., balloon angioplasty and stent placement), echocardiography, or electrophysiology.
29-1213 Dermatologists Diagnose and treat diseases relating to the skin, hair, and nails. May perform both medical and dermatological surgery functions.
29-1214 Emergency Medicine Physicians Make immediate medical decisions and act to prevent death or further disability. Provide immediate recognition, evaluation, care, stabilization, and disposition of patients. May direct emergency medical staff in an emergency department.
29-1215 Family Medicine Physicians Diagnose, treat, and provide preventive care to individuals and families across the lifespan. May refer patients to specialists when needed for further diagnosis or treatment. Excludes “General Internal Medicine Physicians” (29-1216) and “Pediatricians, General” (29-1221).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-1216 General Internal Medicine Physicians Diagnose and provide nonsurgical treatment for a wide range of diseases and injuries of internal organ systems. Provide care mainly for adults and adolescents, and are based primarily in an outpatient care setting. Excludes “Family Medicine Physicians” (29-1215) and “Pediatricians, General” (29-1221).
29-1217 Neurologists Diagnose, manage, and treat disorders and diseases of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, with a primarily nonsurgical focus.
29-1218 Obstetricians and Gynecologists Provide medical care related to pregnancy or childbirth. Diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases of women, particularly those affecting the reproductive system. May also provide general care to women. May perform both medical and gynecological surgery functions.
29-1221 Pediatricians, General Diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases and injuries in children. May refer patients to specialists for further diagnosis or treatment, as needed. Excludes “Family Medicine Physicians” (29-1215) and “General Internal Medicine Physicians” (29-1216).
29-1222 Physicians, Pathologists Diagnose diseases and conduct lab tests using organs, body tissues, and fluids. Includes medical examiners.
29-1223 Psychiatrists Diagnose, treat, and help prevent mental disorders. Excludes “Clinical and Counseling Psychologists” (19-3033) and “School Psychologists” (19-3034).
29-1224 Radiologists Diagnose and treat diseases and injuries using medical imaging techniques, such as x rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, and ultrasounds. May perform minimally invasive medical procedures and tests.
29-1229 Physicians, All Other All physicians not listed separately.
29-1241 Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric Diagnose and perform surgery to treat and help prevent disorders and diseases of the eye. May also provide vision services for treatment including glasses and contacts. Excludes “Optometrists” (29-1041) and “Pediatric Surgeons” (29-1243).
29-1242 Orthopedic Surgeons, Except Pediatric Diagnose and perform surgery to treat and prevent rheumatic and other diseases in the musculoskeletal system. Excludes “Pediatric Surgeons” (29-1243).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-1243 Pediatric Surgeons Diagnose and perform surgery to treat fetal abnormalities and birth defects, diseases, and injuries in fetuses, premature and newborn infants, children, and adolescents. Includes all pediatric surgical specialties and subspecialties. Excludes “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons” (29-1022), “Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric” (29-1241), and “Orthopedic Surgeons, Except Pediatric” (29-1242).
29-1249 Surgeons, All Other All surgeons not listed separately. Excludes “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons” (29-1022).
29-1291 Acupuncturists Diagnose, treat, and prevent disorders by stimulating specific acupuncture points within the body using acupuncture needles. May also use cups, nutritional supplements, therapeutic massage, acupressure, and other alternative health therapies. Excludes “Chiropractors” (29-1011).
29-1292 Dental Hygienists Administer oral hygiene care to patients. Assess patient oral hygiene problems or needs and maintain health records. Advise patients on oral health maintenance and disease prevention. May provide advanced care such as providing fluoride treatment or administering topical anesthesia.
29-1299 Healthcare Diagnosing or Treating Practitioners, All Other All healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners not listed separately.
29-2010 Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians (SOC broad occupation consisting of 29-2011 and 29-2012) Perform routine or complex medical laboratory tests for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
29-2011 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists (Optional - estimates rolled up to 29-2010) Perform complex medical laboratory tests for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. May train or supervise staff.
29-2012 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians (Optional - estimates rolled up to 29-2010) Perform routine medical laboratory tests for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. May work under the supervision of a medical technologist.
29-2031 Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians Conduct tests on pulmonary or cardiovascular systems of patients for diagnostic, therapeutic, or research purposes. May conduct or assist in electrocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, pulmonary functions, lung capacity, and similar tests.
29-2032 Diagnostic Medical Sonographers Produce ultrasonic recordings of internal organs for use by physicians. Includes vascular technologists. Excludes “Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians” (29-2031).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-2033 Nuclear Medicine Technologists Prepare, administer, and measure radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies using a variety of radioisotope equipment. Prepare stock solutions of radioactive materials and calculate doses to be administered by radiologists. Subject patients to radiation. Execute blood volume, red cell survival, and fat absorption studies following standard laboratory techniques.
29-2034 Radiologic Technologists and Technicians Take x-rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient’s bloodstream for diagnostic or research purposes. Includes radiologic technologists and technicians who specialize in other scanning modalities. Excludes “Diagnostic Medical Sonographers” (29-2032) and “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists” (29-2035).
29-2035 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists Operate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners. Monitor patient safety and comfort, and view images of area being scanned to ensure quality of pictures. May administer gadolinium contrast dosage intravenously. May interview patient, explain MRI procedures, and position patient on examining table. May enter into the computer data such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry.
29-2036 Medical Dosimetrists Generate radiation treatment plans, develop radiation dose calculations, communicate and supervise the treatment plan implementation, and consult with members of radiation oncology team.
29-2042 Emergency Medical Technicians Assess injuries and illnesses and administer basic emergency medical care. May transport injured or sick persons to medical facilities. Excludes “Paramedics” (29-2043), “Firefighters” (33-2011), and “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011).
29-2043 Paramedics Administer basic or advanced emergency medical care and assess injuries and illnesses. May administer medication intravenously, use equipment such as EKGs, or administer advanced life support to sick or injured individuals. Excludes “Emergency Medical Technicians” (29-2042) and “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011).
29-2051 Dietetic Technicians Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian. May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.
29-2052 Pharmacy Technicians Prepare medications under the direction of a pharmacist. May measure, mix, count out, label, and record amounts and dosages of medications according to prescription orders.
29-2053 Psychiatric Technicians Care for individuals with mental or emotional conditions or disabilities, following the instructions of physicians or other health practitioners. Monitor patients’ physical and emotional well-being and report to medical staff. May participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs, help with personal hygiene, and administer oral or injectable medications.
29-2055 Surgical Technologists Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel. May help set up operating room, prepare and transport patients for surgery, adjust lights and equipment, pass instruments and other supplies to surgeons and surgeons’ assistants, hold retractors, cut sutures, and help count sponges, needles, supplies, and instruments. Excludes “Surgical Assistants” (29-9093).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-2056 Veterinary Technologists and Technicians Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals. Prepare vaccines and serums for prevention of diseases. Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests, such as urinalysis and blood counts. Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines. May assist a veterinarian during surgery.
29-2057 Ophthalmic Medical Technicians Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions. May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses.
29-2061 Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions. May work under the supervision of a registered nurse. Licensing required.
29-2072 Medical Records Specialists Compile, process, and maintain medical records of hospital and clinic patients in a manner consistent with medical, administrative, ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements of the healthcare system. Classify medical and healthcare concepts, including diagnosis, procedures, medical services, and equipment, into the healthcare industry’s numerical coding system. Includes medical coders. Excludes “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021) and “File Clerks” (43-4071).
29-2081 Opticians, Dispensing Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification. Assist client with inserting, removing, and caring for contact lenses. Assist client with selecting frames. Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription. Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames. Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles. Adjust frame and lens position to fit client. May shape or reshape frames. Includes contact lens opticians.
29-2091 Orthotists and Prosthetists Design, measure, fit, and adapt orthopedic braces, appliances or prostheses, such as limbs or facial parts for patients with disabling conditions.
29-2092 Hearing Aid Specialists Select and fit hearing aids for customers. Administer and interpret tests of hearing. Assess hearing instrument efficacy. Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds. Excludes “Audiologists” (29-1181).
29-2099 Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other All health technologists and technicians not listed separately.
29-9021 Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars Apply knowledge of healthcare and information systems to assist in the design, development, and continued modification and analysis of computerized healthcare systems. Abstract, collect, and analyze treatment and followup information of patients. May educate staff and assist in problem solving to promote the implementation of the healthcare information system. May design, develop, test, and implement databases with complete history, diagnosis, treatment, and health status to help monitor diseases. Excludes “Medical Records Specialists” (29‐2072).
29-9091 Athletic Trainers Evaluate and treat musculoskeletal injuries or illnesses. Provide preventive, therapeutic, emergency, and rehabilitative care. Excludes “Physical Therapists” (29-1123).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
29-9092 Genetic Counselors Assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. Provide information to other healthcare providers or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions. Advise individuals and families to support informed decisionmaking and coping methods for those at risk. May help conduct research related to genetic conditions or genetic counseling.
29-9093 Surgical Assistants Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons. May, in accordance with state laws, help surgeons to make incisions and close surgical sites, manipulate or remove tissues, implant surgical devices or drains, suction the surgical site, place catheters, clamp or cauterize vessels or tissue, and apply dressings to surgical site. Excludes “Registered Nurses” (29-1141) and “Surgical Technologists” (29-2055).
29-9099 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other All healthcare practitioners and technical workers not listed separately.
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31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
31-1120 Home Health and Personal Care Aides (SOC broad occupation consisting of 31-1121 and 31-1122) Monitor the health status of an individual with disabilities or illness and address their routine health-related and personal care needs, such as changing bandages, dressing wounds, or administering medication; or providing personalized assistance with routine personal care and activities of daily living support (e.g. feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and ambulation). Work may be preformed under the direction of offsite or intermittent onsite licensed nursing staff; or in various settings depending on the needs of the care recipient and may include locations such as their home, place of work, outin the community, or at a daytime nonresidential facility. May also help with tasks such as preparing meals, doing light hoursekeeping, and doing laundry.
31-1121 Home Health Aides Monitor the health status of an individual with disabilities or illness, and address their health-related needs, such as changing bandages, dressing wounds, or administering medication. Work is performed under the direction of offsite or intermittent onsite licensed nursing staff. Provide assistance with routine healthcare tasks or activities of daily living, such as feeding, bathing, toileting, or ambulation. May also help with tasks such as preparing meals, doing light housekeeping, and doing laundry depending on the patient’s abilities.
31-1122 Personal Care Aides Provide personalized assistance to individuals with disabilities or illness who require help with personal care and activities of daily living support (e.g., feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and ambulation). May also provide help with tasks such as preparing meals, doing light housekeeping, and doing laundry. Work is performed in various settings depending on the needs of the care recipient and may include locations such as their home, place of work, out in the community, or at a daytime nonresidential facility.
31-1131 Nursing Assistants Provide or assist with basic care or support under the direction of onsite licensed nursing staff. Perform duties such as monitoring of health status, feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, or ambulation of patients in a health or nursing facility. May include medication administration and other health-related tasks. Includes nursing care attendants, nursing aides, and nursing attendants. Excludes “Home Health Aides” (31-1121), “Personal Care Aides” (31-1122), “Orderlies” (31-1132), and “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1133).
31-1132 Orderlies Transport patients to areas such as operating rooms or x-ray rooms using wheelchairs, stretchers, or moveable beds. May maintain stocks of supplies or clean and transport equipment. Excludes “Nursing Assistants” (31-1131). Psychiatric orderlies are included in “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1133).
31-1133 Psychiatric Aides Assist mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed patients, working under direction of nursing and medical staff. May assist with daily living activities, lead patients in educational and recreational activities, or accompany patients to and from examinations and treatments. May restrain violent patients. Includes psychiatric orderlies.
31-2011 Occupational Therapy Assistants Assist occupational therapists in providing occupational therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with state laws, assist in development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, direct activity programs, and document the progress of treatments. Generally requires formal training.
31-2012 Occupational Therapy Aides Under close supervision of an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations. These duties include preparing patient and treatment room.
31-2021 Physical Therapist Assistants Assist physical therapists in providing physical therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with state laws, assist in the development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, document the progress of treatment, and modify specific treatments in accordance with patient status and within the scope of treatment plans established by a physical therapist. Generally requires formal training.
31-2022 Physical Therapist Aides Under close supervision of a physical therapist or physical therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations. These duties include preparing the patient and the treatment area.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
31-9011 Massage Therapists Perform therapeutic massages of soft tissues and joints. May assist in the assessment of range of motion and muscle strength, or propose client therapy plans.
31-9091 Dental Assistants Perform limited clinical duties under the direction of a dentist. Clinical duties may include equipment preparation and sterilization, preparing patients for treatment, assisting the dentist during treatment, and providing patients with instructions for oral healthcare procedures. May perform administrative duties such as scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes.
31-9092 Medical Assistants Perform administrative and certain clinical duties under the direction of a physician. Administrative duties may include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes. Clinical duties may include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories, preparing patients for examination, drawing blood, and administering medications as directed by physician. Excludes “Physician Assistants” (29-1071).
31-9093 Medical Equipment Preparers Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.
31-9094 Medical Transcriptionists Transcribe medical reports recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices, covering office visits, emergency room visits, diagnostic imaging studies, operations, chart reviews, and final summaries. Transcribe dictated reports and translate abbreviations into fully understandable form. Edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature, or correction.
31-9095 Pharmacy Aides Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs. May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.
31-9096 Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers Feed, water, and examine pets and other nonfarm animals for signs of illness, disease, or injury in laboratories and animal hospitals and clinics. Clean and disinfect cages and work areas, and sterilize laboratory and surgical equipment. May provide routine postoperative care, administer medication orally or topically, or prepare samples for laboratory examination under the supervision of veterinary or laboratory animal technologists or technicians, veterinarians, or scientists. Excludes “Animal Caretakers” (39-2021).
31-9097 Phlebotomists Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research. May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions.
31-9099 Healthcare Support Workers, All Other All healthcare support workers not listed separately.
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33-0000 Protective Service Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
33-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers.
33-1012 First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of police force.
33-1021 First-Line Supervisors of Firefighting and Prevention Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention and control.
33-1091 First-Line Supervisors of Security Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of security workers and security guards.
33-1099 First-Line Supervisors of Protective Service Workers, All Other All protective service supervisors not listed separately above.
33-2011 Firefighters Control and extinguish fires or respond to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk. Duties may include fire prevention, emergency medical service, hazardous material response, search and rescue, and disaster assistance.
33-2021 Fire Inspectors and Investigators Inspect buildings to detect fire hazards and enforce local ordinances and state laws, or investigate and gather facts to determine cause of fires and explosions.
33-2022 Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists Enforce fire regulations, inspect forest for fire hazards, and recommend forest fire prevention or control measures. May report forest fires and weather conditions.
33-3011 Bailiffs Maintain order in courts of law.
33-3012 Correctional Officers and Jailers Guard inmates in penal or rehabilitative institutions in accordance with established regulations and procedures. May guard prisoners in transit between jail, courtroom, prison, or other point. Includes deputy sheriffs and police who spend the majority of their time guarding prisoners in correctional institutions.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
33-3021 Detectives and Criminal Investigators Conduct investigations related to suspected violations of federal, state, or local laws to prevent or solve crimes. Excludes “Private Detectives and Investigators” (33-9021).
33-3031 Fish and Game Wardens Patrol assigned area to prevent fish and game law violations. Investigate reports of damage to crops or property by wildlife. Compile biological data.
33-3041 Parking Enforcement Workers Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles.
33-3051 Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers Maintain order and protect life and property by enforcing local, tribal, state, or federal laws and ordinances. Perform a combination of the following duties: patrol a specific area; direct traffic; issue traffic summonses; investigate accidents; apprehend and arrest suspects, or serve legal processes of courts. Includes police officers working at educational institutions.
33-3052 Transit and Railroad Police Protect and police railroad and transit property, employees, or passengers.
33-9011 Animal Control Workers Handle animals for the purpose of investigations of mistreatment, or control of abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals.
33-9021 Private Detectives and Investigators Gather, analyze, compile, and report information regarding individuals or organizations to clients, or detect occurrences of unlawful acts or infractions of rules in private establishment.
33-9031 Gambling Surveillance Officers and Gambling Investigators Observe gambling operation for irregular activities such as cheating or theft by either employees or patrons. Investigate potential threats to gambling assets such as money, chips, and gambling equipment. Act as oversight and security agent for management and customers.
33-9032 Security Guards Guard, patrol, or monitor premises to prevent theft, violence, or infractions of rules. May operate x-ray and metal detector equipment. Excludes “Police Officers” (33-3050) and “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).
33-9091 Crossing Guards and Flaggers Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at such places as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
33-9092 Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes, to provide assistance and protection to participants.
33-9093 Transportation Security Screeners Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations. May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints.
33-9094 School Bus Monitors Maintain order among students on a school bus. Duties include helping students safely board and exit and communicating behavioral problems. May perform pretrip and posttrip inspections and prepare for and assist in emergency evacuations.
33-9099 Protective Service Workers, All Other All protective service workers not listed separately.
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35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
35-1011 Chefs and Head Cooks Direct and may participate in the preparation, seasoning, and cooking of salads, soups, fish, meats, vegetables, desserts, or other foods. May plan and price menu items, order supplies, and keep records and accounts.
35-1012 First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.
35-2011 Cooks, Fast Food Prepare and cook food in a fast food restaurant with a limited menu. Duties of these cooks are limited to preparation of a few basic items and normally involve operating large-volume single-purpose cooking equipment.
35-2012 Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria Prepare and cook large quantities of food for institutions, such as schools, hospitals, or cafeterias.
35-2013 Cooks, Private Household Prepare meals in private homes. Includes personal chefs.
35-2014 Cooks, Restaurant Prepare, season, and cook dishes such as soups, meats, vegetables, or desserts in restaurants. May order supplies, keep records and accounts, price items on menu, or plan menu.
35-2015 Cooks, Short Order Prepare and cook to order a variety of foods that require only a short preparation time. May take orders from customers and serve patrons at counters or tables. Excludes “Cooks, Fast Food” (35-2011).
35-2019 Cooks, All Other All cooks not listed separately.
35-2021 Food Preparation Workers Perform a variety of food preparation duties other than cooking, such as preparing cold foods and shellfish, slicing meat, and brewing coffee or tea.
35-3011 Bartenders Mix and serve drinks to patrons, directly or through waitstaff.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
35-3023 Fast Food and Counter Workers Perform duties such as taking orders and serving food and beverages. Serve customers at counter or from a steam table. May take payment. May prepare food and beverages. Counter attendants who also wait tables are included in “Waiters and Waitresses” (35-3031),
35-3031 Waiters and Waitresses Take orders and serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining establishment. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023).
35-3041 Food Servers, Nonrestaurant Serve food to individuals outside of a restaurant environment, such as in hotel rooms, hospital rooms, residential care facilities, or cars. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023) and “Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers” (41-9091).
35-9011 Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers Facilitate food service. Clean tables; remove dirty dishes; replace soiled table linens; set tables; replenish supply of clean linens, silverware, glassware, and dishes; supply service bar with food; and serve items such as water, condiments, and coffee to patrons.
35-9021 Dishwashers Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils.
35-9031 Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop Welcome patrons, seat them at tables or in lounge, and help ensure quality of facilities and service.
35-9099 Food Preparation and Serving Related Workers, All Other All food preparation and serving related workers not listed separately.
37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
37-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.
37-1012 First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities. Work may involve reviewing contracts to ascertain service, machine, and workforce requirements; answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, material, and price ranges; and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs.
37-2011 Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Keep buildings in clean and orderly condition. Perform heavy cleaning duties, such as cleaning floors, shampooing rugs, washing walls and glass, and removing rubbish. Duties may include tending furnace and boiler, performing routine maintenance activities, notifying management of need for repairs, and cleaning snow or debris from sidewalk.
37-2012 Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.
37-2019 Building Cleaning Workers, All Other All building cleaning workers not listed separately.
37-2021 Pest Control Workers Apply or release chemical solutions or toxic gases and set traps to kill or remove pests and vermin that infest buildings and surrounding areas.
37-3011 Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers Landscape or maintain grounds of property using hand or power tools or equipment. Workers typically perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, mowing, trimming, planting, watering, fertilizing, digging, raking, sprinkler installation, and installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units. Excludes “Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse” (45-2092).
37-3012 Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation Mix or apply pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, or insecticides through sprays, dusts, vapors, soil incorporation, or chemical application on trees, shrubs, lawns, or crops. Usually requires specific training and state or federal certification. Crop dusters are included in “Commercial Pilots” (53-2012).
37-3013 Tree Trimmers and Pruners Using sophisticated climbing and rigging techniques, cut away dead or excess branches from trees or shrubs to maintain right-of-way for roads, sidewalks, or utilities, or to improve appearance, health, and value of tree. Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners. Works off the ground in the tree canopy and may use truck-mounted lifts. Excludes workers who primarily perform duties of “Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-3011) and “Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation” (37-3012).
37-3019 Grounds Maintenance Workers, All Other All grounds maintenance workers not listed separately.
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39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
39-1013 First-Line Supervisors of Gambling Services Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers in assigned gambling areas. May circulate among tables, observe operations, and ensure that stations and games are covered for each shift. May verify and pay off jackpots. May reset slot machines after payoffs and make repairs or adjustments to slot machines or recommend removal of slot machines for repair. May plan and organize activities and services for guests in hotels/casinos.
39-1014 First-Line Supervisors of Entertainment and Recreation Workers, Except Gambling Services Directly supervise and coordinate activities of entertainment and recreation related workers.
39-1022 First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers Supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers.
39-2011 Animal Trainers Train animals for riding, harness, security, performance, or obedience, or for assisting persons with disabilities. Accustom animals to human voice and contact, and condition animals to respond to commands. Train animals according to prescribed standards for show or competition. May train animals to carry pack loads or work as part of pack team.
39-2021 Animal Caretakers Feed, water, groom, bathe, exercise, or otherwise provide care to promote and maintain the well-being of pets and other animals that are not raised for consumption, such as dogs, cats, race horses, ornamental fish or birds, zoo animals, and mice. Work in settings such as kennels, animal shelters, zoos, circuses, and aquariums. May keep records of feedings, treatments, and animals received or discharged. May clean, disinfect, and repair cages, pens, or fish tanks. Excludes “Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers” (31-9096) and “Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals” (45-2093).
39-3011 Gambling Dealers Operate table games. Stand or sit behind table and operate games of chance by dispensing the appropriate number of cards or blocks to players, or operating other gambling equipment. Distribute winnings or collect players’ money or chips. May compare the house’s hand against players’ hands.
39-3012 Gambling and Sports Book Writers and Runners Post information enabling patrons to wager on various races and sporting events. Assist in the operation of games such as keno and bingo. May operate random number-generating equipment and announce the numbers for patrons. Receive, verify, and record patrons’ wagers. Scan and process winning tickets presented by patrons and pay out winnings for those wagers.
39-3019 Gambling Service Workers, All Other All gambling service workers not listed separately.
39-3021 Motion Picture Projectionists Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment.
39-3031 Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and helping patrons locate such facilities as restrooms and telephones.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
39-3091 Amusement and Recreation Attendants Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility. May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.
39-3092 Costume Attendants Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers. May assist with multiple costume changes during performances.
39-3093 Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms.
39-3099 Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other All entertainment attendants and related workers not listed separately.
39-4011 Embalmers Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.
39-4012 Crematory Operators Operate crematory equipment to reduce human or animal remains to bone fragments in accordance with state and local regulations. Duties may include preparing the body for cremation and performing general maintenance on crematory equipment. May use traditional flame-based cremation, calcination, or alkaline hydrolysis.
39-4021 Funeral Attendants Perform a variety of tasks during funeral, such as placing casket in parlor or chapel prior to service, arranging floral offerings or lights around casket, directing or escorting mourners, closing casket, and issuing and storing funeral equipment.
39-4031 Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Arrangers Perform various tasks to arrange and direct individual funeral services, such as coordinating transportation of body to mortuary, interviewing family or other authorized person to arrange details, selecting pallbearers, aiding with the selection of officials for religious rites, and providing transportation for mourners. Excludes “Funeral Home Managers” (11-9171).
39-5011 Barbers Provide barbering services, such as cutting, trimming, shampooing, and styling hair; trimming beards; or giving shaves.
39-5012 Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists Provide beauty services, such as cutting, coloring, and styling hair, and massaging and treating scalp. May shampoo hair, apply makeup, dress wigs, remove hair, and provide nail and skincare services. Excludes “Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance” (39-5091), “Manicurists and Pedicurists” (39-5092), and “Skincare Specialists” (39-5094).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
39-5091 Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance Apply makeup to performers to reflect period, setting, and situation of their role.
39-5092 Manicurists and Pedicurists Clean and shape customers’ fingernails and toenails. May polish or decorate nails.
39-5093 Shampooers Shampoo and rinse customers’ hair.
39-5094 Skincare Specialists Provide skincare treatments to face and body to enhance an individual’s appearance. Includes electrologists and laser hair removal specialists.
39-6011 Baggage Porters and Bellhops Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments.
39-6012 Concierges Assist patrons at hotel, apartment, or office building with personal services. May take messages; arrange or give advice on transportation, business services, or entertainment; or monitor guest requests for housekeeping and maintenance.
39-7010 Tour and Travel Guides (OEWS aggregation to SOC broad occupation consisting of 39-7011 and 39-7012) Plan, organize, and conduct long distance-travel, tours, and expeditions; or sightseeing tours through places of interest such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.
39-7011 Tour Guides and Escorts (Optional - estimates rolled up to 39-7010) Escort individuals or groups on sightseeing tours or through places of interest, such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.
39-7012 Travel Guides (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 39-7010) Plan, organize, and conduct long-distance travel, tours, and expeditions for individuals and groups.
39-9011 Childcare Workers Attend to children at schools, businesses, private households, and childcare institutions. Perform a variety of tasks, such as dressing, feeding, bathing, and overseeing play. Excludes “Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education” (25-2011) and “Teaching Assistants, Preschool, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary School, Except Special Education” (25-9042).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
39-9031 Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors Instruct or coach groups or individuals in exercise activities for the primary purpose of personal fitness. Demonstrate techniques and form, observe participants, and explain to them corrective measures necessary to improve their skills. Develop and implement individualized approaches to exercise. Excludes “Educational Instruction and Library Occupations” (25-0000), “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022), and “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091).
39-9032 Recreation Workers Conduct recreation activities with groups in public, private, or volunteer agencies or recreation facilities. Organize and promote activities, such as arts and crafts, sports, games, music, dramatics, social recreation, camping, and hobbies, taking into account the needs and interests of individual members.
39-9041 Residential Advisors Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary school and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments. Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings. May maintain household records and assign rooms. May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources.
39-9099 Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other All personal care and service workers not listed separately.
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41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
41-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department. Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.
41-1012 First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers. May perform duties such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.
41-2011 Cashiers Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions. May use electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment. May process credit or debit card transactions and validate checks. Excludes “Gambling Change Persons and Booth Cashiers” (41-2012).
41-2012 Gambling Change Persons and Booth Cashiers Exchange coins, tokens, and chips for patrons’ money. May issue payoffs and obtain customer’s signature on receipt. May operate a booth in the slot machine area and furnish change persons with money bank at the start of the shift, or count and audit money in drawers. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
41-2021 Counter and Rental Clerks Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services. May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023), “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081), “Order Clerks” (43-4151), and “Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks” (43-4181).
41-2022 Parts Salespersons Sell spare and replacement parts and equipment in repair shop or parts store.
41-2031 Retail Salespersons Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
41-3011 Advertising Sales Agents Sell or solicit advertising space, time, or media in publications, signage, TV, radio, or Internet establishments or public spaces.
41-3021 Insurance Sales Agents Sell life, property, casualty, health, automotive, or other types of insurance. May refer clients to independent brokers, work as an independent broker, or be employed by an insurance company.
41-3031 Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents Buy and sell securities or commodities in investment and trading firms, or provide financial services to businesses and individuals. May advise customers about stocks, bonds, mutual funds, commodities, and market conditions.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
41-3041 Travel Agents Plan and sell transportation and accommodations for customers. Determine destination, modes of transportation, travel dates, costs, and accommodations required. May also describe, plan, and arrange itineraries and sell tour packages. May assist in resolving clients’ travel problems.
41-3091 Sales Representatives of Services, Except Advertising, Insurance, Financial Services, and Travel Sell services to individuals or businesses. May describe options or resolve client problems. Excludes “Advertising Sales Agents” (41-3011), “Insurance Sales Agents” (41-3021), “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031), “Travel Agents” (41-3041), “Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing” (41-4010), and “Telemarketers” (41-9041).
41-4011 Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers where technical or scientific knowledge is required in such areas as biology, engineering, chemistry, and electronics, normally obtained from at least 2 years of postsecondary education. Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031).
41-4012 Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses or groups of individuals. Work requires substantial knowledge of items sold.
41-9011 Demonstrators and Product Promoters Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product. May sell demonstrated merchandise.
41-9012 Models Model garments or other apparel and accessories for prospective buyers at fashion shows, private showings, or retail establishments. May pose for photos to be used in magazines or advertisements. May pose as subject for paintings, sculptures, and other types of artistic expression.
41-9021 Real Estate Brokers Operate real estate office, or work for commercial real estate firm, overseeing real estate transactions. Other duties usually include selling real estate or renting properties and arranging loans.
41-9022 Real Estate Sales Agents Rent, buy, or sell property for clients. Perform duties such as study property listings, interview prospective clients, accompany clients to property site, discuss conditions of sale, and draw up real estate contracts. Includes agents who represent buyer.
41-9031 Sales Engineers Sell business goods or services, the selling of which requires a technical background equivalent to a baccalaureate degree in engineering. Excludes “Engineers” (17-2011 through 17-2199) whose primary function is not marketing or sales.
41-9041 Telemarketers Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
41-9091 Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers Sell goods or services door-to-door or on the street.
41-9099 Sales and Related Workers, All Other All sales and related workers not listed separately.
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43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
43-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers.
43-2011 Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls. May supply information to callers and record messages.
43-2021 Telephone Operators Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls.
43-2099 Communications Equipment Operators, All Other All communications equipment operators not listed separately.
43-3011 Bill and Account Collectors Locate and notify customers of delinquent accounts by mail, telephone, or personal visit to solicit payment. Duties include receiving payment and posting amount to customer’s account, preparing statements to credit department if customer fails to respond, initiating repossession proceedings or service disconnection, and keeping records of collection and status of accounts.
43-3021 Billing and Posting Clerks Compile, compute, and record billing, accounting, statistical, and other numerical data for billing purposes. Prepare billing invoices for services rendered or for delivery or shipment of goods. Excludes “Medical Records Specialists” (29-2072).
43-3031 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks Compute, classify, and record numerical data to keep financial records complete. Perform any combination of routine calculating, posting, and verifying duties to obtain primary financial data for use in maintaining accounting records. May also check the accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers. Excludes “Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks” (43-3051).
43-3041 Gambling Cage Workers In a gambling establishment, conduct financial transactions for patrons. Accept patron’s credit application and verify credit references to provide check-cashing authorization or to establish house credit accounts. May reconcile daily summaries of transactions to balance books. May sell gambling chips, tokens, or tickets to patrons, or to other workers for resale to patrons. May convert gambling chips, tokens, or tickets to currency upon patron’s request. May use a cash register or computer to record transaction.
43-3051 Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Compile and record employee time and payroll data. May compute employees’ time worked, production, and commission. May compute and post wages and deductions, or prepare paychecks. Excludes “Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks” (43-3031).
43-3061 Procurement Clerks Compile information and records to draw up purchase orders for procurement of materials and services. Excludes “Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products” (13-1022).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
43-3071 Tellers Receive and pay out money. Keep records of money and negotiable instruments involved in a financial institution’s various transactions.
43-3099 Financial Clerks, All Other All financial clerks not listed separately.
43-4011 Brokerage Clerks Perform duties related to the purchase, sale, or holding of securities. Duties include writing orders for stock purchases or sales, computing transfer taxes, verifying stock transactions, accepting and delivering securities, tracking stock price fluctuations, computing equity, distributing dividends, and keeping records of daily transactions and holdings.
43-4021 Correspondence Clerks Compose letters or electronic correspondence in reply to requests for merchandise, damage claims, credit and other information, delinquent accounts, incorrect billings, or unsatisfactory services. Duties may include gathering data to formulate reply and preparing correspondence.
43-4031 Court, Municipal, and License Clerks Perform clerical duties for courts of law, municipalities, or governmental licensing agencies and bureaus. May prepare docket of cases to be called; secure information for judges and court; prepare draft agendas or bylaws for town or city council; answer official correspondence; keep fiscal records and accounts; issue licenses or permits; and record data, administer tests, or collect fees. Clerks of Court are classified in “Managers, All Other” (11-9199).
43-4041 Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks Authorize credit charges against customers’ accounts. Investigate history and credit standing of individuals or business establishments applying for credit. May interview applicants to obtain personal and financial data, determine credit worthiness, process applications, and notify customers of acceptance or rejection of credit.
43-4051 Customer Service Representatives Interact with customers to provide basic or scripted information in response to routine inquiries about products and services. May handle and resolve general complaints. Excludes individuals whose duties are primarily installation, sales, repair, and technical support.
43-4061 Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs Determine eligibility of persons applying to receive assistance from government programs and agency resources, such as welfare, unemployment benefits, social security, and public housing.
43-4071 File Clerks File correspondence, cards, invoices, receipts, and other records in alphabetical or numerical order or according to the filing system used. Locate and remove material from file when requested.
43-4081 Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks Accommodate hotel, motel, and resort patrons by registering and assigning rooms to guests, issuing room keys or cards, transmitting and receiving messages, keeping records of occupied rooms and guests’ accounts, making and confirming reservations, and presenting statements to and collecting payments from departing guests.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
43-4111 Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan Interview persons by telephone, mail, in person, or by other means for the purpose of completing forms, applications, or questionnaires. Ask specific questions, record answers, and assist persons with completing form. May sort, classify, and file forms.
43-4121 Library Assistants, Clerical Compile records, and sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides and microfilm. Locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title. Register patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials. Excludes “Library Technicians” (25-4031).
43-4131 Loan Interviewers and Clerks Interview loan applicants to elicit information; investigate applicants’ backgrounds and verify references; prepare loan request papers; and forward findings, reports, and documents to appraisal department. Review loan papers to ensure completeness, and complete transactions between loan establishment, borrowers, and sellers upon approval of loan.
43-4141 New Accounts Clerks Interview persons desiring to open accounts in financial institutions. Explain account services available to prospective customers and assist them in preparing applications.
43-4151 Order Clerks Receive and process incoming orders for materials, merchandise, classified ads, or services such as repairs, installations, or rental of facilities. Generally receives orders via mail, phone, fax, or other electronic means. Duties include informing customers of receipt, prices, shipping dates, and delays; preparing contracts; and handling complaints. Excludes “Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance” (43-5032) who both dispatch and take orders for services.
43-4161 Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping Compile and keep personnel records. Record data for each employee, such as address, weekly earnings, absences, amount of sales or production, supervisory reports, and date of and reason for termination. May prepare reports for employment records, file employment records, or search employee files and furnish information to authorized persons.
43-4171 Receptionists and Information Clerks Answer inquiries and provide information to the general public, customers, visitors, and other interested parties regarding activities conducted at establishment and location of departments, offices, and employees within the organization. Excludes “Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service” (43-2011).
43-4181 Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks Make and confirm reservations for transportation or lodging, or sell transportation tickets. May check baggage and direct passengers to designated concourse, pier, or track; deliver tickets and contact individuals and groups to inform them of package tours; or provide tourists with travel or transportation information. Excludes "Cashiers” (41-2011), "Travel Agents” (41-3041), and "Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081) who sell tickets for local transportation.
43-4199 Information and Record Clerks, All Other All information and record clerks not listed separately.
43-5011 Cargo and Freight Agents Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
43-5021 Couriers and Messengers Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance. Excludes “Light Truck Drivers” (53-3033).
43-5031 Public Safety Telecommunicators Operate telephone, radio, or other communication systems to receive and communicate requests for emergency assistance at 9-1-1 public safety answering points and emergency operations centers. Take information from the public and other sources regarding crimes, threats, disturbances, acts of terrorism, fires, medical emergencies, and other public safety matters. May coordinate and provide information to law enforcement and emergency response personnel. May access sensitive databases and other information sources as needed. May provide additional instructions to callers based on knowledge of and certification in law enforcement, fire, or emergency medical procedures.
43-5032 Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business. Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.
43-5041 Meter Readers, Utilities Read meter and record consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam.
43-5051 Postal Service Clerks Perform any combination of tasks in a United States Postal Service (USPS) post office, such as receive letters and parcels; sell postage and revenue stamps, postal cards, and stamped envelopes; fill out and sell money orders; place mail in pigeon holes of mail rack or in bags; and examine mail for correct postage. Includes postal service clerks employed by USPS contractors.
43-5052 Postal Service Mail Carriers Sort and deliver mail for the United States Postal Service (USPS). Deliver mail on established route by vehicle or on foot. Includes postal service mail carriers employed by USPS contractors.
43-5053 Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution for the United States Postal Service (USPS). Examine, sort, and route mail. Load, operate, and occasionally adjust and repair mail processing, sorting, and canceling machinery. Keep records of shipments, pouches, and sacks, and perform other duties related to mail handling within the postal service. Includes postal service mail sorters and processors employed by USPS contractors. Excludes “Postal Service Clerks” (43-5051) and “Postal Service Mail Carriers” (43-5052).
43-5061 Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks Coordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within or between departments of an establishment according to production schedule. Duties include reviewing and distributing production, work, and shipment schedules; conferring with department supervisors to determine progress of work and completion dates; and compiling reports on progress of work, inventory levels, costs, and production problems. Excludes “Project Management Specialists” (13-1082) and “Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping” (43-5111).
43-5071 Shipping, Receiving, and Inventory Clerks Verify and maintain records on incoming and outgoing shipments involving inventory. Duties include verifying and recording incoming merchandise or material and arranging for the transportation of products. May prepare items for shipment. Excludes “Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping” (43-5111), “Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, except Postal Service” (43-9051), and “Stockers and Order Fillers” (53-7065).
43-5111 Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping Weigh, measure, and check materials, supplies, and equipment for the purpose of keeping relevant records. Duties are primarily clerical by nature. Includes workers who collect and keep record of samples of products or materials. Excludes “Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers” (51-9061).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
43-6011 Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants Provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, and handling information requests, as well as performing routine administrative functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings. May also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff. Excludes “Secretaries” (43-6012 through 43-6014).
43-6012 Legal Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Perform secretarial duties using legal terminology, procedures, and documents. Prepare legal papers and correspondence, such as summonses, complaints, motions, and subpoenas. May also assist with legal research.
43-6013 Medical Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Perform secretarial duties using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures. Duties may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, and compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.
43-6014 Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive Perform routine administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers. Excludes legal, medical, and executive secretaries (43-6011 through 43-6013).
43-9021 Data Entry Keyers Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Excludes “Word Processors and Typists” (43-9022).
43-9022 Word Processors and Typists Use word processor, computer, or typewriter to type letters, reports, forms, or other material from rough draft, corrected copy, or voice recording. May perform other clerical duties as assigned. Excludes “Court Reporters and Simultaneous Captioners” (27-3092), “Medical Transcriptionists” (31-9094), “Secretaries and Administrative Assistants” (43-6010), and “Data Entry Keyers” (43-9021).
43-9031 Desktop Publishers Format typescript and graphic elements using computer software to produce publication-ready material.
43-9041 Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks Process new insurance policies, modifications to existing policies, and claims forms. Obtain information from policyholders to verify the accuracy and completeness of information on claims forms, applications and related documents, and company records. Update existing policies and company records to reflect changes requested by policyholders and insurance company representatives. Excludes “Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators” (13-1031).
43-9051 Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Time-stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail; and address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages. Duties may also include keeping necessary records and completed forms.
43-9061 Office Clerks, General Perform duties too varied and diverse to be classified in any specific office clerical occupation, requiring knowledge of office systems and procedures. Clerical duties may be assigned in accordance with the office procedures of individual establishments and may include a combination of answering telephones, bookkeeping, typing or word processing, office machine operation, and filing.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
43-9071 Office Machine Operators, Except Computer Operate one or more of a variety of office machines, such as photocopying, photographic, and duplicating machines, or other office machines. Excludes “Billing and Posting Clerks” (43-3021) and “Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service” (43-9051).
43-9081 Proofreaders and Copy Markers Read transcript or proof type setup to detect and mark for correction any grammatical, typographical, or compositional errors. Excludes workers whose primary duty is editing copy. Includes proofreaders of braille.
43-9111 Statistical Assistants Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies. May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for use by actuaries. Includes actuarial clerks.
43-9199 Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other All office and administrative support workers not listed separately.
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45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
45-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, aquacultural, and related workers. Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-1012).
45-2011 Agricultural Inspectors Inspect agricultural commodities, processing equipment, and facilities, and fish and logging operations, to ensure compliance with regulations and laws governing health, quality, and safety.
45-2021 Animal Breeders Select and breed animals according to their genealogy, characteristics, and offspring. May require knowledge of artificial insemination techniques and equipment use. May involve keeping records on heats, birth intervals, or pedigree. Excludes “Animal Scientists” (19-1011) whose primary function is research and “Animal Caretakers” (39-2021) who may occasionally breed animals as part of their other caretaking duties.
45-2041 Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products Grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition. Excludes “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011).
45-2091 Agricultural Equipment Operators Drive and control equipment to support agricultural activities such as tilling soil; planting, cultivating, and harvesting crops; feeding and herding livestock; or removing animal waste. May perform tasks such as crop baling or hay bucking. May operate stationary equipment to perform post-harvest tasks such as husking, shelling, threshing, and ginning.
45-2092 Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse Manually plant, cultivate, and harvest vegetables, fruits, nuts, horticultural specialties, and field crops. Use hand tools, such as shovels, trowels, hoes, tampers, pruning hooks, shears, and knives. Duties may include tilling soil and applying fertilizers; transplanting, weeding, thinning, or pruning crops; applying pesticides; or cleaning, grading, sorting, packing, and loading harvested products. May construct trellises, repair fences and farm buildings, or participate in irrigation activities. Excludes “Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation” (37-3012), “Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products” (45-2041), and “Forest, Conservation, and Logging Workers” (45-4011 through 45-4029).
45-2093 Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals Attend to live farm, ranch, open range or aquacultural animals that may include cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses and other equines, poultry, rabbits, finfish, shellfish, and bees. Attend to animals produced for animal products, such as meat, fur, skins, feathers, eggs, milk, and honey. Duties may include feeding, watering, herding, grazing, milking, castrating, branding, de-beaking, weighing, catching, and loading animals. May maintain records on animals; examine animals to detect diseases and injuries; assist in birth deliveries; and administer medications, vaccinations, or insecticides as appropriate. May clean and maintain animal housing areas. Includes workers who shear wool from sheep and collect eggs in hatcheries.
45-2099 Agricultural Workers, All Other All agricultural workers not listed separately.
45-3031 Fishing and Hunting Workers Hunt, trap, catch, or gather wild animals or aquatic animals and plants. May use nets, traps, or other equipment. May haul catch onto ship or other vessel. Aquacultural laborers who work on fish farms are included in “Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals” (45-2093).
45-4011 Forest and Conservation Workers Under supervision, perform manual labor necessary to develop, maintain, or protect areas such as forests, forested areas, woodlands, wetlands, and rangelands through such activities as raising and transporting seedlings; combating insects, pests, and diseases harmful to plant life; and building structures to control water, erosion, and leaching of soil. Includes forester aides, seedling pullers, tree planters, and gatherers of nontimber forestry products such as pine straw.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
45-4021 Fallers Use axes or chainsaws to fell trees using knowledge of tree characteristics and cutting techniques to control direction of fall and minimize tree damage.
45-4022 Logging Equipment Operators Drive logging tractor or wheeled vehicle equipped with one or more accessories, such as bulldozer blade, frontal shear, grapple, logging arch, cable winches, hoisting rack, or crane boom, to fell tree; to skid, load, unload, or stack logs; or to pull stumps or clear brush. Includes operating stand-alone logging machines, such as log chippers. Logging truck drivers are included in “Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers” (53-3032).
45-4023 Log Graders and Scalers Grade logs or estimate the marketable content or value of logs or pulpwood in sorting yards, millpond, log deck, or similar locations. Inspect logs for defects or measure logs to determine volume. Excludes “Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products” (13-1021).
45-4029 Logging Workers, All Other All logging workers not listed separately.
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47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
47-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extraction workers.
47-2011 Boilermakers Construct, assemble, maintain, and repair stationary steam boilers and boiler house auxiliaries. Align structures or plate sections to assemble boiler frame tanks or vats, following blueprints. Work involves use of hand and power tools, plumb bobs, levels, wedges, dogs, or turnbuckles. Assist in testing assembled vessels. Direct cleaning of boilers and boiler furnaces. Inspect and repair boiler fittings, such as safety valves, regulators, automatic-control mechanisms, water columns, and auxiliary machines.
47-2021 Brickmasons and Blockmasons Lay and bind building materials, such as brick, structural tile, concrete block, cinder block, glass block, and terra-cotta block, with mortar and other substances, to construct or repair walls, partitions, arches, sewers, and other structures. Installers of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in “Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-3011). Excludes “Stonemasons” (47-2022).
47-2022 Stonemasons Build stone structures, such as piers, walls, and abutments. Lay walks, curbstones, or special types of masonry for vats, tanks, and floors.
47-2031 Carpenters Construct, erect, install, or repair structures and fixtures made of wood and comparable materials, such as concrete forms; building frameworks, including partitions, joists, studding, and rafters; and wood stairways, window and door frames, and hardwood floors. May also install cabinets, siding, drywall, and batt or roll insulation. Includes brattice builders who build doors or brattices (ventilation walls or partitions) in underground passageways.
47-2041 Carpet Installers Lay and install carpet from rolls or blocks on floors. Install padding and trim flooring materials. Excludes “Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles” (47-2042).
47-2042 Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles Apply blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing, sound-deadening, or decorative coverings to floors.
47-2043 Floor Sanders and Finishers Scrape and sand wooden floors to smooth surfaces using floor scraper and floor sanding machine, and apply coats of finish.
47-2044 Tile and Stone Setters Apply hard tile, stone, and comparable materials to walls, floors, ceilings, countertops, and roof decks.
47-2051 Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers Smooth and finish surfaces of poured concrete, such as floors, walks, sidewalks, roads, or curbs using a variety of hand and power tools. Align forms for sidewalks, curbs, or gutters; patch voids; and use saws to cut expansion joints. Installers of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in “Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-3011).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
47-2053 Terrazzo Workers and Finishers Apply a mixture of cement, sand, pigment, or marble chips to floors, stairways, and cabinet fixtures to fashion durable and decorative surfaces.
47-2061 Construction Laborers Perform tasks involving physical labor at construction sites. May operate hand and power tools of all types: air hammers, earth tampers, cement mixers, small mechanical hoists, surveying and measuring equipment, and a variety of other equipment and instruments. May clean and prepare sites, dig trenches, set braces to support the sides of excavations, erect scaffolding, and clean up rubble, debris, and other waste materials. May assist other craft workers. Construction laborers who primarily assist a particular craft worker are classified under “Helpers, Construction Trades” (47-3010). Excludes “Hazardous Materials Removal Workers” (47-4041).
47-2071 Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators Operate equipment used for applying concrete, asphalt, or other materials to road beds, parking lots, or airport runways and taxiways or for tamping gravel, dirt, or other materials. Includes concrete and asphalt paving machine operators, form tampers, tamping machine operators, and stone spreader operators.
47-2072 Pile Driver Operators Operate pile drivers mounted on skids, barges, crawler treads, or locomotive cranes to drive pilings for retaining walls, bulkheads, and foundations of structures such as buildings, bridges, and piers.
47-2073 Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators Operate one or several types of power construction equipment, such as motor graders, bulldozers, scrapers, compressors, pumps, derricks, shovels, tractors, or front-end loaders to excavate, move, and grade earth, erect structures, or pour concrete or other hard surface pavement. May repair and maintain equipment in addition to other duties. Excludes “Extraction Workers” (47-5000) and “Crane and Tower Operators” (53-7021).
47-2081 Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers Apply plasterboard or other wallboard to ceilings or interior walls of buildings. Apply or mount acoustical tiles or blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing materials to ceilings and walls of buildings to reduce or reflect sound. Materials may be of decorative quality. Includes lathers who fasten wooden, metal, or rockboard lath to walls, ceilings, or partitions of buildings to provide support base for plaster, fireproofing, or acoustical material. Excludes “Carpenters” (47-2031), “Carpet Installers” (47-2041), and “Tile and Stone Setters” (47-2044).
47-2082 Tapers Seal joints between plasterboard or other wallboard to prepare wall surface for painting or papering.
47-2111 Electricians Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. May install or service street lights, intercom systems, or electrical control systems. Excludes “Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers” (49-2098).
47-2121 Glaziers Install glass in windows, skylights, store fronts, and display cases, or on surfaces, such as building fronts, interior walls, ceilings, and tabletops.
47-2131 Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall Line and cover structures with insulating materials. May work with batt, roll, or blown insulation materials.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
47-2132 Insulation Workers, Mechanical Apply insulating materials to pipes or ductwork, or other mechanical systems in order to help control and maintain temperature.
47-2141 Painters, Construction and Maintenance Paint walls, equipment, buildings, bridges, and other structural surfaces, using brushes, rollers, and spray guns. May remove old paint to prepare surface prior to painting. May mix colors or oils to obtain desired color or consistency. Excludes “Paperhangers” (47-2142).
47-2142 Paperhangers Cover interior walls or ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards. May remove old materials or prepare surfaces to be papered.
47-2151 Pipelayers Lay pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, and water mains. Perform any combination of the following tasks: grade trenches or culverts, position pipe, or seal joints. Excludes “Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers” (51-4121).
47-2152 Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Assemble, install, alter, and repair pipelines or pipe systems that carry water, steam, air, or other liquids or gases. May install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems. Includes sprinkler fitters.
47-2161 Plasterers and Stucco Masons Apply interior or exterior plaster, cement, stucco, or similar materials. May also set ornamental plaster.
47-2171 Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers Position and secure steel bars or mesh in concrete forms in order to reinforce concrete. Use a variety of fasteners, rod-bending machines, blowtorches, and hand tools. Includes rod busters.
47-2181 Roofers Cover roofs of structures with shingles, slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, or related materials. May spray roofs, sidings, and walls with material to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures.
47-2211 Sheet Metal Workers Fabricate, assemble, install, and repair sheet metal products and equipment, such as ducts, control boxes, drainpipes, and furnace casings. Work may involve any of the following: setting up and operating fabricating machines to cut, bend, and straighten sheet metal; shaping metal over anvils, blocks, or forms using hammer; operating soldering and welding equipment to join sheet metal parts; or inspecting, assembling, and smoothing seams and joints of burred surfaces. Includes sheet metal duct installers who install prefabricated sheet metal ducts used for heating, air conditioning, or other purposes.
47-2221 Structural Iron and Steel Workers Raise, place, and unite iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or structural frameworks. May erect metal storage tanks and assemble prefabricated metal buildings. Excludes “Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers” (47-2171).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
47-2231 Solar Photovoltaic Installers Assemble, install, or maintain solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on roofs or other structures in compliance with site assessment and schematics. May include measuring, cutting, assembling, and bolting structural framing and solar modules. May perform minor electrical work such as current checks. Excludes solar PV electricians who are included in “Electricians” (47-2111) and solar thermal installers who are included in “Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters” (47-2152).
47-3011 Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters Help brickmasons, blockmasons, stonemasons, or tile and marble setters by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons or tile and marble setters are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
47-3012 Helpers--Carpenters Help carpenters by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist carpenters are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
47-3013 Helpers--Electricians Help electricians by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist electricians are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
47-3014 Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons Help painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
47-3015 Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Help plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
47-3016 Helpers--Roofers Help roofers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist roofers are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
47-3019 Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other All construction trades helpers not listed separately.
47-4011 Construction and Building Inspectors Inspect structures using engineering skills to determine structural soundness and compliance with specifications, building codes, and other regulations. Inspections may be general in nature or may be limited to a specific area, such as electrical systems or plumbing.
47-4021 Elevator and Escalator Installers and Repairers Assemble, install, repair, or maintain electric or hydraulic freight or passenger elevators, escalators, or dumbwaiters.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
47-4031 Fence Erectors Erect and repair fences and fence gates, using hand and power tools.
47-4041 Hazardous Materials Removal Workers Identify, remove, pack, transport, or dispose of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead-based paint, waste oil, fuel, transmission fluid, radioactive materials, or contaminated soil. Specialized training and certification in hazardous materials handling or a confined entry permit are generally required. May operate earth-moving equipment or trucks.
47-4051 Highway Maintenance Workers Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way. Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement and repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences. May also mow or clear brush from along road, or plow snow from roadway. Excludes “Tree Trimmers and Pruners” (37-3013).
47-4061 Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines. Includes ballast cleaning machine operators and railroad bed tamping machine operators.
47-4071 Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains. May patch walls and partitions of tank, replace damaged drain tile, or repair breaks in underground piping.
47-4090 Miscellaneous Construction and Related Workers (OEWS aggregation to SOC broad occupation consisting of 47-4091 and 47-4099) Lay out, cut, and place segmental paving units. Includes all other construction and related workers not listed separately.
47-4091 Segmental Pavers (Optional - estimates rolled up to 47-4090) Lay out, cut, and place segmental paving units. Includes installers of bedding and restraining materials for the paving units. Illustrative examples: Concrete Pavement Installer, Paving Stone Installer
47-4099 Construction and Related Workers, All Other (Optional - estimates rolled up to 47-4090) All construction and related workers not listed separately. Illustrative example: Aluminum Pool Installer, Waterproofer
47-5011 Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud or fluid through drill hole.
47-5012 Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas” (47-5023).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
47-5013 Service Unit Operators, Oil and Gas Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. Includes fishing-tool technicians.
47-5022 Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators, Surface Mining Operate or tend machinery at surface mining site, equipped with scoops, shovels, or buckets to excavate and load loose materials.
47-5023 Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas Operate a variety of drills such as rotary, churn, and pneumatic to tap subsurface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction. Includes horizontal and earth boring machine operators.
47-5032 Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters Place and detonate explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials. May perform specialized handling, storage, and accounting procedures.
47-5041 Continuous Mining Machine Operators Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors, shuttle cars, or trucks in a continuous operation.
47-5043 Roof Bolters, Mining Operate machinery to install roof support bolts in underground mine.
47-5044 Loading and Moving Machine Operators, Underground Mining Operate underground loading or moving machine to load or move core, ore, or rock using shuttle or mine car or conveyors. Equipment may include power shovels, hoisting engines equipped with cable-drawn scraper or scoop, or machines equipped with gathering arms and conveyor.
47-5049 Underground Mining Machine Operators, All Other All underground mining machine operators not listed separately.
47-5051 Rock Splitters, Quarry Separate blocks of rough dimension stone from quarry mass using jackhammers, wedges, or chop saws.
47-5071 Roustabouts, Oil and Gas Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as needed.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
47-5081 Helpers--Extraction Workers Help extraction craft workers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work area. Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
47-5099 Extraction Workers, All Other All extraction workers not listed separately.
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49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
49-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers. May also advise customers on recommended services. Excludes team or work leaders.
49-2011 Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers Repair, maintain, or install computers, word processing systems, automated teller machines, and electronic office machines, such as duplicating and fax machines.
49-2021 Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairers Repair, install, or maintain mobile or stationary radio transmitting, broadcasting, and receiving equipment, and two-way radio communications systems used in cellular telecommunications, mobile broadband, ship-to-shore, aircraft-to-ground communications, and radio equipment in service and emergency vehicles. May test and analyze network coverage.
49-2022 Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers Install, set up, rearrange, or remove switching, distribution, routing, and dialing equipment used in central offices or headends. Service or repair telephone, cable television, Internet, and other communications equipment on customers’ property. May install communications equipment or communications wiring in buildings. Excludes “Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers” (49-9052).
49-2091 Avionics Technicians Install, inspect, test, adjust, or repair avionics equipment, such as radar, radio, navigation, and missile control systems in aircraft or space vehicles.
49-2092 Electric Motor, Power Tool, and Related Repairers Repair, maintain, or install electric motors, wiring, or switches.
49-2093 Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment Install, adjust, or maintain mobile electronics communication equipment, including sound, sonar, security, navigation, and surveillance systems on trains, watercraft, or other mobile equipment. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091) and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
49-2094 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment Repair, test, adjust, or install electronic equipment, such as industrial controls, transmitters, and antennas. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091), “Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment” (49-2093), and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
49-2095 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay Inspect, test, repair, or maintain electrical equipment in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays.
49-2096 Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles Install, diagnose, or repair communications, sound, security, or navigation equipment in motor vehicles.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
49-2097 Audiovisual Equipment Installers and Repairers Install, repair, or adjust audio or television receivers, stereo systems, camcorders, video systems, or other electronic entertainment equipment in homes or other venues. May perform routine maintenance. Excludes “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011).
49-2098 Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers Install, program, maintain, and repair security and fire alarm wiring and equipment. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. Excludes “Electricians” (47-2111) who do a broad range of electrical wiring.
49-3011 Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091).
49-3021 Automotive Body and Related Repairers Repair and refinish automotive vehicle bodies and straighten vehicle frames. Excludes “Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers” (49-3022) and “Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9124).
49-3022 Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers Replace or repair broken windshields and window glass in motor vehicles.
49-3023 Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul automotive vehicles. Excludes “Automotive Body and Related Repairers” (49-3021), “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031), and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
49-3031 Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul buses and trucks, or maintain and repair any type of diesel engines. Includes mechanics working primarily with automobile or marine diesel engines.
49-3041 Farm Equipment Mechanics and Service Technicians Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul farm machinery and vehicles, such as tractors, harvesters, dairy equipment, and irrigation systems. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031).
49-3042 Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul mobile mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment, such as cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors, used in construction, logging, and mining. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031) and “Rail Car Repairers” (49-3043).
49-3043 Rail Car Repairers Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul railroad rolling stock, mine cars, or mass transit rail cars. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
49-3051 Motorboat Mechanics and Service Technicians Repair and adjust electrical and mechanical equipment of inboard or inboard-outboard boat engines. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031).
49-3052 Motorcycle Mechanics Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul motorcycles, scooters, mopeds, dirt bikes, or similar motorized vehicles.
49-3053 Outdoor Power Equipment and Other Small Engine Mechanics Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul small engines used to power lawn mowers, chain saws, recreational sporting equipment, and related equipment.
49-3091 Bicycle Repairers Repair and service bicycles.
49-3092 Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians Diagnose, inspect, adjust, repair, or overhaul recreational vehicles including travel trailers. May specialize in maintaining gas, electrical, hydraulic, plumbing, or chassis/towing systems as well as repairing generators, appliances, and interior components. Includes workers who perform customized van conversions. Excludes “Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics” (49-3023) and “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031) who also work on recreation vehicles.
49-3093 Tire Repairers and Changers Repair and replace tires.
49-9011 Mechanical Door Repairers Install, service, or repair automatic door mechanisms and hydraulic doors. Includes garage door mechanics.
49-9012 Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.
49-9021 Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers Install or repair heating, central air conditioning, HVAC, or refrigeration systems, including oil burners, hot-air furnaces, and heating stoves.
49-9031 Home Appliance Repairers Repair, adjust, or install all types of electric or gas household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, dryers, and ovens.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
49-9041 Industrial Machinery Mechanics Repair, install, adjust, or maintain industrial production and processing machinery or refinery and pipeline distribution systems. May also install, dismantle, or move machinery and heavy equipment according to plans. Excludes “Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines” (49-3042), and “Maintenance Workers, Machinery” (49-9043).
49-9043 Maintenance Workers, Machinery Lubricate machinery, change parts, or perform other routine machinery maintenance. Excludes “Maintenance and Repair Workers, General” (49-9071).
49-9044 Millwrights Install, dismantle, or move machinery and heavy equipment according to layout plans, blueprints, or other drawings.
49-9045 Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons Build or repair equipment such as furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits, and ovens, using refractory materials.
49-9051 Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers Install or repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems. May erect poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers. Excludes “Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay” (49-2095).
49-9052 Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers Install and repair telecommunications cable, including fiber optics.
49-9061 Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including commercial video and motion picture camera equipment.
49-9062 Medical Equipment Repairers Test, adjust, or repair biomedical or electromedical equipment.
49-9063 Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners Repair percussion, stringed, reed, or wind instruments. May specialize in one area, such as piano tuning. Excludes “Audiovisual Equipment Installers and Repairers" (49-2097) who repair electrical and electronic musical instruments.
49-9064 Watch and Clock Repairers Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers. Excludes "Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters” (51-2061).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
49-9069 Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other All precision instrument and equipment repairers not listed separately.
49-9071 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General Perform work involving the skills of two or more maintenance or craft occupations to keep machines, mechanical equipment, or the structure of a building in repair. Duties may involve pipe fitting; HVAC maintenance; insulating; welding; machining; carpentry; repairing electrical or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning, and balancing new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, or stairs. Excludes “Facilities Managers” (11-3013) and “Maintenance Workers, Machinery” (49-9043).
49-9081 Wind Turbine Service Technicians Inspect, diagnose, adjust, or repair wind turbines. Perform maintenance on wind turbine equipment including resolving electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic malfunctions.
49-9091 Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers Install, service, adjust, or repair coin, vending, or amusement machines including video games, juke boxes, pinball machines, or slot machines.
49-9092 Commercial Divers Work below surface of water, using surface-supplied air or scuba equipment to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment. May conduct tests or experiments, rig explosives, or photograph structures or marine life. Excludes “Athletes and Sports Competitors” (27-2021), “Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers” (33-3051), and “Fishing and Hunting Workers” (45-3031).
49-9094 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers Repair and open locks, make keys, change locks and safe combinations, and install and repair safes.
49-9095 Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings.
49-9096 Riggers Set up or repair rigging for construction projects, manufacturing plants, logging yards, ships and shipyards, or for the entertainment industry.
49-9097 Signal and Track Switch Repairers Install, inspect, test, maintain, or repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, or intercommunications systems within a railroad system.
49-9098 Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers in maintenance, parts replacement, and repair of vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment. Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers; cleaning work area, machines, and tools; and holding materials or tools for other workers.
49-9099 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other All installation, maintenance, and repair workers not listed separately.
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51-0000 Production Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.
51-2011 Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers Assemble, fit, fasten, and install parts of airplanes, space vehicles, or missiles, such as tails, wings, fuselage, bulkheads, stabilizers, landing gear, rigging and control equipment, or heating and ventilating systems.
51-2021 Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers Wind wire coils used in electrical components, such as resistors and transformers, and in electrical equipment and instruments, such as field cores, bobbins, armature cores, electrical motors, generators, and control equipment.
51-2028 Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical Assemblers, Except Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers (OEWS aggregation to OEWS-specific code and title) Assemble or modify electrical, electronic, or electromechanical equipment or devices.
51-2022 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 51-2028) Assemble or modify electrical or electronic equipment, such as computers, test equipment telemetering systems, electric motors, and batteries.
51-2023 Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers (Optional - estimates rolled up to 51-2028) Assemble or modify electromechanical equipment or devices, such as servomechanisms, gyros, dynamometers, magnetic drums, tape drives, brakes, control linkage, actuators, and appliances.
51-2031 Engine and Other Machine Assemblers Construct, assemble, or rebuild machines, such as engines, turbines, and similar equipment used in such industries as construction, extraction, textiles, and paper manufacturing.
51-2041 Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters Fabricate, position, align, and fit parts of structural metal products. Shipfitters are included in “Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic” (51-4192).
51-2051 Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators Laminate layers of fiberglass on molds to form boat decks and hulls, bodies for golf carts, automobiles, or other products.
51-2061 Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters Perform precision assembling or adjusting, within narrow tolerances, of timing devices such as digital clocks or timing devices with electrical or electronic components. Watchmakers are included in “Watch and Clock Repairers” (49-9064).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-2090 Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators (OEWS aggregation to broad occupation from SOC codes 51-2092 and 51-2099) (South Dakota titles this occupation Team Assemblers and Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators) Work as part of a team having responsibility for assembling an entire product or component of a product. Team assemblers can perform all tasks conducted by the team in the assembly process and rotate through all or most of them, rather than being assigned to a specific task on a permanent basis. May participate in making management decisions affecting the work. Includes team leaders who work as part of a team. Assemblers who continuously perform the same taks are classified elsewhere in 51-2000. Includes all assemblers not listed separately.
51-2092 Team Assemblers (Optional - Estimates roll up to 51-2090) Work as part of a team having responsibility for assembling an entire product or component of a product. Team assemblers can perform all tasks conducted by the team in the assembly process and rotate through all or most of them, rather than being assigned to a specific task on a permanent basis. May participate in making management decisions affecting the work. Includes team leaders who work as part of the team. Assemblers who continuously perform the same task are classified elsewhere in 51-2000.
51-2099 Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other - (Optional - estimates roll up to 51-2090) All assemblers and fabricators not listed separately.
51-3011 Bakers Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods. Pastry chefs in restaurants and hotels are included with “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).
51-3021 Butchers and Meat Cutters Cut, trim, or prepare consumer-sized portions of meat for use or sale in retail establishments.
51-3022 Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers Use hands or hand tools to perform routine cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, and seafood.
51-3023 Slaughterers and Meat Packers Perform nonroutine or precision functions involving the preparation of large portions of meat. Work may include specialized slaughtering tasks, cutting standard or premium cuts of meat for marketing, making sausage, or wrapping meats. Work typically occurs in slaughtering, meat packing, or wholesale establishments. Excludes “Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers” (51-3022) who perform routine meat cutting.
51-3091 Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders Operate or tend food or tobacco roasting, baking, or drying equipment, including hearth ovens, kiln driers, roasters, char kilns, and vacuum drying equipment.
51-3092 Food Batchmakers Set up and operate equipment that mixes or blends ingredients used in the manufacturing of food products. Includes candy makers and cheese makers.
51-3093 Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders Operate or tend cooking equipment, such as steam cooking vats, deep fry cookers, pressure cookers, kettles, and boilers, to prepare food products. Excludes “Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-3091).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-3099 Food Processing Workers, All Other All food processing workers not listed separately
51-4021 Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend machines to extrude or draw thermoplastic or metal materials into tubes, rods, hoses, wire, bars, or structural shapes.
51-4022 Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend forging machines to taper, shape, or form metal or plastic parts.
51-4023 Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend machines to roll steel or plastic forming bends, beads, knurls, rolls, or plate, or to flatten, temper, or reduce gauge of material.
51-4031 Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend machines to saw, cut, shear, slit, punch, crimp, notch, bend, or straighten metal or plastic material.
51-4032 Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend drilling machines to drill, bore, ream, mill, or countersink metal or plastic work pieces.
51-4033 Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend grinding and related tools that remove excess material or burrs from surfaces, sharpen edges or corners, or buff, hone, or polish metal or plastic work pieces.
51-4034 Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend lathe and turning machines to turn, bore, thread, form, or face metal or plastic materials, such as wire, rod, or bar stock.
51-4035 Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend milling or planing machines to mill, plane, shape, groove, or profile metal or plastic work pieces.
51-4041 Machinists Set up and operate a variety of machine tools to produce precision parts and instruments out of metal. Includes precision instrument makers who fabricate, modify, or repair mechanical instruments. May also fabricate and modify parts to make or repair machine tools or maintain industrial machines, applying knowledge of mechanics, mathematics, metal properties, layout, and machining procedures. Machinists who primarily program or operate computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment are classified in “Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators and Programmers” (51-9160).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-4051 Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders Operate or tend furnaces, such as gas, oil, coal, electric-arc or electric induction, open-hearth, or oxygen furnaces, to melt and refine metal before casting or to produce specified types of steel. Excludes “Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4191).
51-4052 Pourers and Casters, Metal Operate hand-controlled mechanisms to pour and regulate the flow of molten metal into molds to produce castings or ingots.
51-4061 Model Makers, Metal and Plastic Set up and operate machines, such as lathes, milling and engraving machines, and jig borers to make working models of metal or plastic objects. Includes template makers.
51-4062 Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic Lay out, machine, fit, and assemble castings and parts to metal or plastic foundry patterns, core boxes, or match plates.
51-4071 Foundry Mold and Coremakers Make or form wax or sand cores or molds used in the production of metal castings in foundries. Excludes “Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4072) and “Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic” (51-9195).
51-4072 Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend metal or plastic molding, casting, or coremaking machines to mold or cast metal or thermoplastic parts or products.
51-4081 Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend more than one type of cutting or forming machine tool or robot.
51-4111 Tool and Die Makers Analyze specifications, lay out metal stock, set up and operate machine tools, and fit and assemble parts to make and repair dies, cutting tools, jigs, fixtures, gauges, and machinists’ hand tools.
51-4121 Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers Use hand-welding, flame-cutting, hand-soldering, or brazing equipment to weld or join metal components or to fill holes, indentations, or seams of fabricated metal products.
51-4122 Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend welding, soldering, or brazing machines or robots that weld, braze, solder, or heat treat metal products, components, or assemblies. Includes workers who operate laser cutters or laser-beam machines.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-4191 Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend heating equipment, such as heat-treating furnaces, flame-hardening machines, induction machines, soaking pits, or vacuum equipment to temper, harden, anneal, or heat treat metal or plastic objects.
51-4192 Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal or plastic stock or workpieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing. Includes shipfitters.
51-4193 Plating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Set up, operate, or tend plating machines to coat metal or plastic products with chromium, zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel, or other metal to protect or decorate surfaces. Typically, the product being coated is immersed in molten metal or an electrolytic solution. Excludes “Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9124).
51-4194 Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners Perform precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, or grinding of metal objects.
51-4199 Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, All Other All metal workers and plastic workers not listed separately.
51-5111 Prepress Technicians and Workers Format and proof text and images submitted by designers and clients into finished pages that can be printed. Includes digital and photo typesetting. May produce printing plates.
51-5112 Printing Press Operators Set up and operate digital, letterpress, lithographic, flexographic, gravure, or other printing machines. Includes short-run offset printing presses.
51-5113 Print Binding and Finishing Workers Bind books and other publications or finish printed products by hand or machine. May set up binding and finishing machines.
51-6011 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean industrial or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, linens, rugs, and carpets. Includes spotters and dyers of these articles.
51-6021 Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials Press or shape articles by hand or machine.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-6031 Sewing Machine Operators Operate or tend sewing machines to join, reinforce, decorate, or perform related sewing operations in the manufacture of garment or nongarment products.
51-6041 Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles. May use hand tools.
51-6042 Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.
51-6051 Sewers, Hand Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items. Includes weavers and stitchers.
51-6052 Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers Design, make, alter, repair, or fit garments.
51-6061 Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders Operate or tend machines to bleach, shrink, wash, dye, or finish textiles or synthetic or glass fibers.
51-6062 Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut textiles.
51-6063 Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that knit, loop, weave, or draw in textiles. Excludes “Sewing Machine Operators” (51-6031).
51-6064 Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that wind or twist textiles; or draw out and combine sliver, such as wool, hemp, or synthetic fibers. Includes slubber machine and drawing frame operators.
51-6091 Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers Set up, operate, or tend machines that extrude and form continuous filaments from synthetic materials, such as liquid polymer, rayon, and fiberglass.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-6092 Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts. May also mark and cut fabrics and apparel.
51-6093 Upholsterers Make, repair, or replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles.
51-6099 Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers, All Other All textile, apparel, and furnishings workers not listed separately.
51-7011 Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters Cut, shape, and assemble wooden articles or set up and operate a variety of woodworking machines, such as power saws, jointers, and mortisers to surface, cut, or shape lumber or to fabricate parts for wood products. Excludes “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-7040).
51-7021 Furniture Finishers Shape, finish, and refinish damaged, worn, or used furniture or new high-grade furniture to specified color or finish.
51-7031 Model Makers, Wood Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products. Includes wood jig builders and loft workers.
51-7032 Patternmakers, Wood Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings.
51-7041 Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood Set up, operate, or tend wood sawing machines. May operate computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment. Includes lead sawyers. Workers who primarily program or operate CNC equipment are classified in “Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators and Programmers” (51-9160).
51-7042 Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing Set up, operate, or tend woodworking machines, such as drill presses, lathes, shapers, routers, sanders, planers, and wood nailing machines. May operate computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment. Workers who primarily program or operate CNC equipment are classified in “Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators and Programmers” (51-9160).
51-7099 Woodworkers, All Other All woodworkers not listed separately.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-8011 Nuclear Power Reactor Operators Operate or control nuclear reactors. Move control rods, start and stop equipment, monitor and adjust controls, and record data in logs. Implement emergency procedures when needed. May respond to abnormalities, determine cause, and recommend corrective action.
51-8012 Power Distributors and Dispatchers Coordinate, regulate, or distribute electricity or steam.
51-8013 Power Plant Operators Control, operate, or maintain machinery to generate electric power. Includes auxiliary equipment operators. Excludes “Nuclear Power Reactor Operators” (51-8011).
51-8021 Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators Operate or maintain stationary engines, boilers, or other mechanical equipment to provide utilities for buildings or industrial processes. Operate equipment such as steam engines, generators, motors, turbines, and steam boilers.
51-8031 Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators Operate or control an entire process or system of machines, often through the use of control boards, to transfer or treat water or wastewater.
51-8091 Chemical Plant and System Operators Control or operate entire chemical processes or system of machines.
51-8092 Gas Plant Operators Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines.
51-8093 Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers Operate or control petroleum refining or processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines.
51-8099 Plant and System Operators, All Other All plant and system operators not listed separately.
51-9011 Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders Operate or tend equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels. Excludes “Chemical Plant and System Operators” (51-8091).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-9012 Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; condenser tubes; precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks; scrubbing towers; or batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators. Excludes “Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders” (51-9011).
51-9021 Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber.
51-9022 Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand Grind, sand, or polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a variety of metal, wood, stone, clay, plastic, or glass objects. Includes chippers, buffers, and finishers.
51-9023 Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines to mix or blend materials, such as chemicals, tobacco, liquids, color pigments, or explosive ingredients. Excludes “Food Batchmakers” (51-3092).
51-9031 Cutters and Trimmers, Hand Use hand tools or hand-held power tools to cut and trim a variety of manufactured items, such as carpet, fabric, stone, glass, or rubber.
51-9032 Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material. Excludes “Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4031), “Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-6062), and “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-7040).
51-9041 Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines, such as glass-forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to shape and form products such as glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile, clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-6042) and “Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9196).
51-9051 Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal, plastic, or food processing equipment. Includes activities such as annealing glass, drying lumber, curing rubber, removing moisture from materials, or boiling soap.
51-9061 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers Inspect, test, sort, sample, or weigh nonagricultural raw materials or processed, machined, fabricated, or assembled parts or products for defects, wear, and deviations from specifications. May use precision measuring instruments and complex test equipment.
51-9071 Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers Design, fabricate, adjust, repair, or appraise jewelry, gold, silver, other precious metals, or gems. Includes diamond polishers and gem cutters, and persons who perform precision casting and modeling of molds, casting metal in molds, or setting precious and semiprecious stones for jewelry and related products.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-9081 Dental Laboratory Technicians Construct and repair full or partial dentures or dental appliances. Excludes “Dental Assistants” (31-9091).
51-9082 Medical Appliance Technicians Construct, maintain, or repair medical supportive devices such as braces, orthotics and prosthetic devices, joints, arch supports, and other surgical and medical appliances.
51-9083 Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians Cut, grind, and polish eyeglasses, contact lenses, or other precision optical elements. Assemble and mount lenses into frames or process other optical elements. Includes precision lens polishers or grinders, centerer-edgers, and lens mounters. Excludes “Opticians, Dispensing ” (29-2081).
51-9111 Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders Operate or tend machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment. Includes cannery workers who pack food products.
51-9123 Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers Paint, coat, or decorate articles, such as furniture, glass, plateware, pottery, jewelry, toys, books, or leather. Excludes “Artists and Related Workers" (27-1010), “Designers” (27-1020), “Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators” (51-9151), and “Etchers and Engravers” (51-9194).
51-9124 Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend spraying or rolling machines to coat or paint any of a wide variety of products, including glassware, cloth, ceramics, metal, plastic, paper, or wood, with lacquer, silver, copper, rubber, varnish, glaze, enamel, oil, or rust-proofing materials. Includes painters of transportation vehicles such as painters in auto body repair facilities. Excludes “Plating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4193).
51-9141 Semiconductor Processing Technicians Perform any or all of the following functions in the manufacture of electronic semiconductors: load semiconductor material into furnace; saw formed ingots into segments; load individual segment into crystal growing chamber and monitor controls; locate crystal axis in ingot using x-ray equipment and saw ingots into wafers; and clean, polish, and load wafers into series of special purpose furnaces, chemical baths, and equipment used to form circuitry and change conductive properties.
51-9151 Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media. May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints.
51-9161 Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators Operate computer-controlled tools, machines, or robots to machine or process parts, tools, or other work pieces made of metal, plastic, wood, stone, or other materials. May also set up and maintain equipment.
51-9162 Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Programmers Develop programs to control machining or processing of materials by automatic machine tools, equipment, or systems. May also set up, operate, or maintain equipment.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
51-9191 Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product. Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper; or joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-6042).
51-9192 Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders Operate or tend machines to wash or clean products, such as barrels or kegs, glass items, tin plate, food, pulp, coal, plastic, or rubber, to remove impurities.
51-9193 Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders Operate or tend equipment such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, to cool or freeze products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals.
51-9194 Etchers and Engravers Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk screen etchers. Photoengravers are included in “Prepress Technicians and Workers” (51-5111).
51-9195 Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic Mold, shape, form, cast, or carve products such as food products, figurines, tile, pipes, and candles consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, stone, or combinations of materials.
51-9196 Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products.
51-9197 Tire Builders Operate machines to build tires.
51-9198 Helpers--Production Workers Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Apprentice workers are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000).
51-9199 Production Workers, All Other All production workers not listed separately. Excludes “Packers and Packagers, Hand” (53-7064).
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53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
53-1041 Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors Supervise and coordinate the activities of ground crew in the loading, unloading, securing, and staging of aircraft cargo or baggage. May determine the quantity and orientation of cargo and compute aircraft center of gravity. May accompany aircraft as member of flight crew and monitor and handle cargo in flight, and assist and brief passengers on safety and emergency procedures. Includes loadmasters.
53-1044 First-Line Supervisors of Passenger Attendants Supervise and coordinate activities of passenger attendants. Includes supervisors of “Flight Attendants” (53-2031).
53-1048 First-Line Supervisors of Transportation and Material-Moving workers, Except Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors and First-Line Supervisors of Passenger Attendants (OEWS aggregation to OEWS-specific code and title) Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of helpers, labrers, and material movers; or transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators and helpers.
53-1042 First-Line Supervisors of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 53.1048) Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of helpers, laborers, or material movers, hand.
53-1043 First-Line Supervisors of Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 53-1048) Directly supervise and coordinate activities of material-moving machine and vehicle operators and helpers.
53-1049 First-Line Supervisors of Transportation Workers, All Other All first-line supervisors of transportation workers not listed separately. Illustrative examples: Gas Station Supervisor.
53-2011 Airline Pilots, Copilots, and Flight Engineers Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft, usually on scheduled air carrier routes, for the transport of passengers and cargo. Requires Federal Air Transport certificate and rating for specific aircraft type used. Includes regional, national, and international airline pilots and flight instructors of airline pilots. Excludes “Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians” (17-3024).
53-2012 Commercial Pilots Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft on nonscheduled air carrier routes, or helicopters. Requires Commercial Pilot certificate. Includes charter pilots with similar certification, and air ambulance and air tour pilots. Excludes regional, national, and international airline pilots. Excludes “Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians” (17-3024).
53-2021 Air Traffic Controllers Control air traffic on and within vicinity of airport, and movement of air traffic between altitude sectors and control centers, according to established procedures and policies. Authorize, regulate, and control commercial airline flights according to government or company regulations to expedite and ensure flight safety.
53-2022 Airfield Operations Specialists Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft. Duties include coordination between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel, dispatching, using airfield landing and navigational aids, implementing airfield safety procedures, monitoring and maintaining flight records, and applying knowledge of weather information.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
53-2031 Flight Attendants Monitor safety of the aircraft cabin. Provide services to airline passengers, explain safety information, serve food and beverages, and respond to emergency incidents.
53-3011 Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians Drive ambulance or assist ambulance driver in transporting sick, injured, or convalescent persons. Assist in lifting patients.
53-3031 Driver/Sales Workers Drive truck or other vehicle over established routes or within an established territory and sell or deliver goods, such as food products, including restaurant take-out items, or pick up or deliver items such as commercial laundry. May also take orders, collect payment, or stock merchandise at point of delivery. Excludes “Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers” (49-9091) and “Light Truck Drivers” (53-3033).
53-3032 Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers Drive a tractor-trailer combination or a truck with a capacity of at least 26,001 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). May be required to unload truck. Requires commercial drivers’ license. Includes tow truck drivers. Excludes “Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors” (53-7081).
53-3033 Light Truck Drivers Drive a light vehicle, such as a truck or van, with a capacity of less than 26,001 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), primarily to pick up merchandise or packages from a distribution center and deliver. May load and unload vehicle. Excludes “Couriers and Messengers” (43-5021) and “Driver/Sales Workers” (53-3031).
53-3051 Bus Drivers, School Drive a school bus to transport students. Ensure adherence to safety rules. May assist students in boarding or exiting.
53-3052 Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity Drive bus or motor coach, including regular route operations, charters, and private carriage. May assist passengers with baggage. May collect fares or tickets.
53-3053 Shuttle Drivers and Chauffeurs Drive a motor vehicle to transport passengers on a planned or scheduled basis. May collect a fare. Includes nonemergency medical transporters and hearse drivers. Excludes “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011) and “Taxi Drivers” (53-3054).
53-3054 Taxi Drivers Drive a motor vehicle to transport passengers on an unplanned basis and charge a fare, usually based on a meter. Excludes “Shuttle Drivers and Chauffeurs” (53-3053).
53-3099 Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other All motor vehicle operators not listed separately.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
53-4011 Locomotive Engineers Drive electric, diesel-electric, steam, or gas-turbine-electric locomotives to transport passengers or freight. Interpret train orders, electronic or manual signals, and railroad rules and regulations. Excludes “Engineers” (17-2011 through 17-2199).
53-4013 Rail Yard Engineers, Dinkey Operators, and Hostlers Drive switching or other locomotive or dinkey engines within railroad yard, industrial plant, quarry, construction project, or similar location.
53-4022 Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators and Locomotive Firers Operate or monitor railroad track switches or locomotive instruments. May couple or uncouple rolling stock to make up or break up trains. Watch for and relay traffic signals. May inspect couplings, air hoses, journal boxes, and hand brakes. May watch for dragging equipment or obstacles on rights-of-way.
53-4031 Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters Coordinate activities of switch-engine crew within railroad yard, industrial plant, or similar location. Conductors coordinate activities of train crew on passenger or freight trains. Yardmasters review train schedules and switching orders and coordinate activities of workers engaged in railroad traffic operations, such as the makeup or breakup of trains and yard switching.
53-4041 Subway and Streetcar Operators Operate subway or elevated suburban trains with no separate locomotive, or electric-powered streetcar, to transport passengers. May handle fares.
53-4099 Rail Transportation Workers, All Other All rail transportation workers not listed separately.
53-5011 Sailors and Marine Oilers Stand watch to look for obstructions in path of vessel, measure water depth, turn wheel on bridge, or use emergency equipment as directed by captain, mate, or pilot. Break out, rig, overhaul, and store cargo-handling gear, stationary rigging, and running gear. Perform a variety of maintenance tasks to preserve the painted surface of the ship and to maintain line and ship equipment. Must hold government-issued certification and tankerman certification when working aboard liquid-carrying vessels. Includes able seamen and ordinary seamen.
53-5021 Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels Command or supervise operations of ships and water vessels, such as tugboats and ferryboats. Required to hold license issued by U.S. Coast Guard. Excludes “Motorboat Operators” (53-5022).
53-5022 Motorboat Operators Operate small motor-driven boats. May assist in navigational activities.
53-5031 Ship Engineers Supervise and coordinate activities of crew engaged in operating and maintaining engines, boilers, deck machinery, and electrical, sanitary, and refrigeration equipment aboard ship. Excludes “Engineers” (17-2000).
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
53-6011 Bridge and Lock Tenders Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages. May supervise such operations. Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators.
53-6021 Parking Attendants Park vehicles or issue tickets for customers in a parking lot or garage. May park or tend vehicles in environments such as a car dealership or rental car facility. May collect fee.
53-6031 Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories. Collect payment for services and supplies. May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, refill antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts. May repair or replace tires. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
53-6032 Aircraft Service Attendants Service aircraft with fuel. May de-ice aircraft, refill water and cooling agents, empty sewage tanks, service air and oxygen systems, or clean and polish exterior.
53-6041 Traffic Technicians Conduct field studies to determine traffic volume, speed, effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors influencing traffic conditions, under direction of traffic engineer.
53-6051 Transportation Inspectors Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people. Includes rail transportation inspectors, such as freight inspectors, rail inspectors, and other inspectors of transportation vehicles not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).
53-6061 Passenger Attendants Provide services to ensure the safety of passengers aboard ships, buses, trains, or within the station or terminal. Perform duties such as explaining the use of safety equipment, serving meals or beverages, or answering questions related to travel. Excludes “Baggage Porters and Bellhops” (39-6011) and “Flight Attendants” (53-2031).
53-6099 Transportation Workers, All Other All transportation workers not listed separately.
53-7011 Conveyor Operators and Tenders Control or tend conveyors or conveyor systems that move materials or products to and from stockpiles, processing stations, departments, or vehicles. May control speed and routing of materials or products.
53-7021 Crane and Tower Operators Operate mechanical boom and cable or tower and cable equipment to lift and move materials, machines, or products in many directions.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
53-7031 Dredge Operators Operate dredge to remove sand, gravel, or other materials in order to excavate and maintain navigable channels in waterways.
53-7041 Hoist and Winch Operators Operate or tend hoists or winches to lift and pull loads using power-operated cable equipment. Excludes “Crane and Tower Operators” (53-7021).
53-7051 Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators Operate industrial trucks or tractors equipped to move materials around a warehouse, storage yard, factory, construction site, or similar location. Excludes “Logging Equipment Operators” (45-4022).
53-7061 Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment Wash or otherwise clean vehicles, machinery, and other equipment. Use such materials as water, cleaning agents, brushes, cloths, and hoses. Excludes “Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners” (37-2011).
53-7062 Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand Manually move freight, stock, luggage, or other materials, or perform other general labor. Includes all manual laborers not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Construction Laborers” (47-2061) and “Helpers, Construction Trades” (47-3011 through 47-3019). Excludes “Material Moving Workers” (53-7011 through 53-7199) who use power equipment.
53-7063 Machine Feeders and Offbearers Feed materials into or remove materials from machines or equipment that is automatic or tended by other workers.
53-7064 Packers and Packagers, Hand Pack or package by hand a wide variety of products and materials.
53-7065 Stockers and Order Fillers Receive, store, and issue merchandise, materials, equipment, and other items from stockroom, warehouse, or storage yard to fill shelves, racks, tables, or customers’ orders. May operate power equipment to fill orders. May mark prices on merchandise and set up sales displays. Excludes “Shipping, Receiving, and Inventory Clerks” (43-5071), “Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand” (53-7062), and “Packers and Packagers, Hand” (53-7064).
53-7071 Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators Operate steam-, gas-, electric motor-, or internal combustion-engine driven compressors. Transmit, compress, or recover gases, such as butane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and natural gas.
53-7072 Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes.
SOC Code SOC Title SOC Definition
53-7073 Wellhead Pumpers Operate power pumps and auxiliary equipment to produce flow of oil or gas from wells in oil field.
53-7081 Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors Collect and dump refuse or recyclable materials from containers into truck. May drive truck.
53-7121 Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders Load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain, into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships, using material moving equipment. May perform a variety of other tasks relating to shipment of products. May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks.
53-7199 Material Moving Workers, All Other All material moving workers not listed separately.
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Updated to the 2018 SOC in October 2019.

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