Marcia Hultman

Cabinet Secretary

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Labor Market Information Center

Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Descriptions

(in alphabetical order)

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A
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Accountants and Auditors 13-2011 Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others. Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data. Excludes “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081).
Actors 27-2011 Play parts in stage, television, radio, video, or film productions, or other settings for entertainment, information, or instruction. Interpret serious or comic role by speech, gesture, and body movement to entertain or inform audience. May dance and sing.
Actuaries 15-2011 Analyze statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits. May ascertain insurance rates required and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.
Acupuncturists 29-1291 Diagnose, treat, and prevent disorders by stimulating specific acupuncture points within the body using acupuncture needles. May also use cups, nutritional supplements, therapeutic massage, acupressure, and other alternative health therapies. Excludes “Chiropractors” (29-1011).
Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders 51-9191 Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product. Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper; or joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-6042).
Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers 23-1021 Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters. Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements. Excludes “Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators” (23-1022).
Administrative Services Managers 11-3012 Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, and other office support services. Medical records administrators are included in “Medical and Health Services Managers” (11-9111). Excludes “Facilities Managers” (11-3013) and “Purchasing Managers” (11-3061).
Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors 25-3011 Teach or instruct out-of-school youths and adults in basic education, literacy, or English as a Second Language classes, or in classes for earning a high school equivalency credential.
Advertising and Promotions Managers 11-2011 Plan, direct, or coordinate advertising policies and programs or produce collateral materials, such as posters, contests, coupons, or giveaways, to create extra interest in the purchase of a product or service for a department, an entire organization, or on an account basis.
Advertising Sales Agents 41-3011 Sell or solicit advertising space, time, or media in publications, signage, TV, radio, or Internet establishments or public spaces.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technologists and Technicians 17-3021 Operate, install, adjust, and maintain integrated computer/communications systems, consoles, simulators, and other data acquisition, test, and measurement instruments and equipment, which are used to launch, track, position, and evaluate air and space vehicles. May record and interpret test data.
Aerospace Engineers 17-2011 Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.
Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes 13-1011 Represent and promote artists, performers, and athletes in dealings with current or prospective employers. May handle contract negotiation and other business matters for clients.
Agricultural Engineers 17-2021 Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.
Agricultural Equipment Operators 45-2091 Drive and control equipment to support agricultural activities such as tilling soil; planting, cultivating, and harvesting crops; feeding and herding livestock; or removing animal waste. May perform tasks such as crop baling or hay bucking. May operate stationary equipment to perform post-harvest tasks such as husking, shelling, threshing, and ginning.
Agricultural Inspectors 45-2011 Inspect agricultural commodities, processing equipment, and facilities, and fish and logging operations, to ensure compliance with regulations and laws governing health, quality, and safety.
Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1041 Teach courses in the agricultural sciences. Includes teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and agricultural soil conservation. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1043).
Agricultural Technicians 19-4012 Work with agricultural scientists in plant, fiber, and animal research, or assist with animal breeding and nutrition. Set up or maintain laboratory equipment and collect samples from crops or animals. Prepare specimens or record data to assist scientists in biology or related life science experiments. Conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects.
Agricultural Workers, All Other 45-2099 All agricultural workers not listed separately.
Air Traffic Controllers 53-2021 Control air traffic on and within vicinity of airport, and movement of air traffic between altitude sectors and control centers, according to established procedures and policies. Authorize, regulate, and control commercial airline flights according to government or company regulations to expedite and ensure flight safety.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors 53-1041 Supervise and coordinate the activities of ground crew in the loading, unloading, securing, and staging of aircraft cargo or baggage. May determine the quantity and orientation of cargo and compute aircraft center of gravity. May accompany aircraft as member of flight crew and monitor and handle cargo in flight, and assist and brief passengers on safety and emergency procedures. Includes loadmasters.
Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians 49-3011 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091).
Aircraft Service Attendants 53-6032 Service aircraft with fuel. May de-ice aircraft, refill water and cooling agents, empty sewage tanks, service air and oxygen systems, or clean and polish exterior.
Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers 51-2011 Assemble, fit, fasten, and install parts of airplanes, space vehicles, or missiles, such as tails, wings, fuselage, bulkheads, stabilizers, landing gear, rigging and control equipment, or heating and ventilating systems.
Airfield Operations Specialists 53-2022 Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft. Duties include coordination between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel, dispatching, using airfield landing and navigational aids, implementing airfield safety procedures, monitoring and maintaining flight records, and applying knowledge of weather information.
Airline Pilots, Copilots, and Flight Engineers 53-2011 Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft, usually on scheduled air carrier routes, for the transport of passengers and cargo. Requires Federal Air Transport certificate and rating for specific aircraft type used. Includes regional, national, and international airline pilots and flight instructors of airline pilots. Excludes “Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians” (17-3024).
Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians 53-3011 Drive ambulance or assist ambulance driver in transporting sick, injured, or convalescent persons. Assist in lifting patients.
Amusement and Recreation Attendants 39-3091 Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility. May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.
Anesthesiologists 29-1211 Administer anesthetics and analgesics for pain management prior to, during, or after surgery.
Animal Breeders 45-2021 Select and breed animals according to their genealogy, characteristics, and offspring. May require knowledge of artificial insemination techniques and equipment use. May involve keeping records on heats, birth intervals, or pedigree. Excludes “Animal Scientists” (19-1011) whose primary function is research and “Animal Caretakers” (39-2021) who may occasionally breed animals as part of their other caretaking duties.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Animal Caretakers 39-2021 Feed, water, groom, bathe, exercise, or otherwise provide care to promote and maintain the well-being of pets and other animals that are not raised for consumption, such as dogs, cats, race horses, ornamental fish or birds, zoo animals, and mice. Work in settings such as kennels, animal shelters, zoos, circuses, and aquariums. May keep records of feedings, treatments, and animals received or discharged. May clean, disinfect, and repair cages, pens, or fish tanks. Excludes “Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers” (31-9096) and “Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals” (45-2093).
Animal Control Workers 33-9011 Handle animals for the purpose of investigations of mistreatment, or control of abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals.
Animal Scientists 19-1011 Conduct research in the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals.
Animal Trainers 39-2011 Train animals for riding, harness, security, performance, or obedience, or for assisting persons with disabilities. Accustom animals to human voice and contact, and condition animals to respond to commands. Train animals according to prescribed standards for show or competition. May train animals to carry pack loads or work as part of pack team.
Anthropologists and Archeologists 19-3091 Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings. May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.
Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1061 Teach courses in anthropology or archeology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate 13-2023 Appraise real estate, exclusively, and estimate its fair value. May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules. Excludes “Appraisers of Personal and Business Property” (13-2022).
Appraisers of Personal and Business Property 13-2022 Appraise and estimate the fair value of tangible personal or business property, such as jewelry, art, antiques, collectibles, and equipment. Includes workers who appraise both personal and business property as well as real estate. May also appraise land. Excludes “Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators” (13-1031), “Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage” (13-1032), “Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate” (13-2023), and “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081).
Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators 23-1022 Facilitate negotiation and conflict resolution through dialogue. Resolve conflicts outside of the court system by mutual consent of parties involved.
Architects, Except Landscape and Naval 17-1011 Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property. Excludes “Landscape Architects” (17-1012) and “Marine Engineers and Naval Architects” (17-2121).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Architectural and Civil Drafters 17-3011 Prepare detailed drawings of architectural and structural features of buildings or drawings and topographical relief maps used in civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and public works. Use knowledge of building materials, engineering practices, and mathematics to complete drawings.
Architectural and Engineering Managers 11-9041 Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields. Excludes “Natural Sciences Managers” (11-9121).
Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1031 Teach courses in architecture and architectural design, such as architectural environmental design, interior architecture/design, and landscape architecture. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Archivists 25-4011 Appraise, edit, and direct safekeeping of permanent records and historically valuable documents. Participate in research activities based on archival materials.
Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1062 Teach courses pertaining to the culture and development of an area, an ethnic group, or any other group, such as Latin American studies, women’s studies, or urban affairs. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Art Directors 27-1011 Formulate design concepts and presentation approaches for visual productions and media, such as print, broadcasting, video, and film. Direct workers engaged in artwork or layout design. Excludes “Set and Exhibit Designers” (27-1027).
Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1121 Teach courses in drama, music, and the arts including fine and applied art, such as painting and sculpture, or design and crafts. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Artists and Related Workers, All Other 27-1019 All artists and related workers not listed separately.
Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other - (Optional - estimates roll up to 51-2090) 51-2099 All assemblers and fabricators not listed separately.
Astronomers 19-2011 Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Athletes and Sports Competitors 27-2021 Compete in athletic events.
Athletic Trainers 29-9091 Evaluate and treat musculoskeletal injuries or illnesses. Provide preventive, therapeutic, emergency, and rehabilitative care. Excludes “Physical Therapists” (29-1123).
Atmospheric and Space Scientists 19-2021 Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses. Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology.
Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1051 Teach courses in the physical sciences, except chemistry and physics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Audio and Video Technicians 27-4011 Set up, maintain, and dismantle audio and video equipment, such as microphones, sound speakers, connecting wires and cables, sound and mixing boards, video cameras, video monitors and servers, and related electronic equipment for live or recorded events, such as concerts, meetings, conventions, presentations, podcasts, news conferences, and sporting events. Excludes “Sound Engineering Technicians” (27-4014), “Lighting Technicians” (27-4015), and “Audiovisual Equipment Installers and Repairers” (49-2097).
Audiologists 29-1181 Assess and treat persons with hearing and related disorders. May fit hearing aids and provide auditory training. May perform research related to hearing problems.
Audiovisual Equipment Installers and Repairers 49-2097 Install, repair, or adjust audio or television receivers, stereo systems, camcorders, video systems, or other electronic entertainment equipment in homes or other venues. May perform routine maintenance. Excludes “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011).
Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants 53-6031 Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories. Collect payment for services and supplies. May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, refill antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts. May repair or replace tires. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
Automotive Body and Related Repairers 49-3021 Repair and refinish automotive vehicle bodies and straighten vehicle frames. Excludes “Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers” (49-3022) and “Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9124).
Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers 49-3022 Replace or repair broken windshields and window glass in motor vehicles.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics 49-3023 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul automotive vehicles. Excludes “Automotive Body and Related Repairers” (49-3021), “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031), and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
Avionics Technicians 49-2091 Install, inspect, test, adjust, or repair avionics equipment, such as radar, radio, navigation, and missile control systems in aircraft or space vehicles.
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B
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Baggage Porters and Bellhops 39-6011 Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments.
Bailiffs 33-3011 Maintain order in courts of law.
Bakers 51-3011 Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods. Pastry chefs in restaurants and hotels are included with “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).
Barbers 39-5011 Provide barbering services, such as cutting, trimming, shampooing, and styling hair; trimming beards; or giving shaves.
Bartenders 35-3011 Mix and serve drinks to patrons, directly or through waitstaff.
Bicycle Repairers 49-3091 Repair and service bicycles.
Bill and Account Collectors 43-3011 Locate and notify customers of delinquent accounts by mail, telephone, or personal visit to solicit payment. Duties include receiving payment and posting amount to customer’s account, preparing statements to credit department if customer fails to respond, initiating repossession proceedings or service disconnection, and keeping records of collection and status of accounts.
Billing and Posting Clerks 43-3021 Compile, compute, and record billing, accounting, statistical, and other numerical data for billing purposes. Prepare billing invoices for services rendered or for delivery or shipment of goods. Excludes “Medical Records Specialists” (29-2072).
Biochemists and Biophysicists 19-1021 Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.
Bioengineers and Biomedical Engineers 17-2031 Apply knowledge of engineering, biology, chemistry, computer science, and biomechanical principles to the design, development, and evaluation of biological, agricultural, and health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation, medical information systems, and heath management and care delivery systems.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1042 Teach courses in biological sciences. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Biological Scientists, All Other 19-1029 All biological scientists not listed separately.
Biological Technicians 19-4021 Assist biological and medical scientists. Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, collect data and samples, make observations, and calculate and record results. May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs.
Boilermakers 47-2011 Construct, assemble, maintain, and repair stationary steam boilers and boiler house auxiliaries. Align structures or plate sections to assemble boiler frame tanks or vats, following blueprints. Work involves use of hand and power tools, plumb bobs, levels, wedges, dogs, or turnbuckles. Assist in testing assembled vessels. Direct cleaning of boilers and boiler furnaces. Inspect and repair boiler fittings, such as safety valves, regulators, automatic-control mechanisms, water columns, and auxiliary machines.
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks 43-3031 Compute, classify, and record numerical data to keep financial records complete. Perform any combination of routine calculating, posting, and verifying duties to obtain primary financial data for use in maintaining accounting records. May also check the accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers. Excludes “Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks” (43-3051).
Brickmasons and Blockmasons 47-2021 Lay and bind building materials, such as brick, structural tile, concrete block, cinder block, glass block, and terra-cotta block, with mortar and other substances, to construct or repair walls, partitions, arches, sewers, and other structures. Installers of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in “Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-3011). Excludes “Stonemasons” (47-2022).
Bridge and Lock Tenders 53-6011 Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages. May supervise such operations. Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators.
Broadcast Announcers and Radio Disc Jockeys 27-3011 Speak or read from scripted materials, such as news reports or commercial messages, on radio, television, or other communications media. May play and queue music, announce artist or title of performance, identify station, or interview guests. Excludes “News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists” (27-3023).
Broadcast Technicians 27-4012 Set up, operate, and maintain the electronic equipment used to acquire, edit, and transmit audio and video for radio or television programs. Control and adjust incoming and outgoing broadcast signals to regulate sound volume, signal strength, and signal clarity. Operate satellite, microwave, or other transmitter equipment to broadcast radio or television programs.
Brokerage Clerks 43-4011 Perform duties related to the purchase, sale, or holding of securities. Duties include writing orders for stock purchases or sales, computing transfer taxes, verifying stock transactions, accepting and delivering securities, tracking stock price fluctuations, computing equity, distributing dividends, and keeping records of daily transactions and holdings.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Budget Analysts 13-2031 Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Analyze budgeting and accounting reports. Excludes “Financial and Investment Analysts” (13-2051).
Building Cleaning Workers, All Other 37-2019 All building cleaning workers not listed separately.
Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists 49-3031 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul buses and trucks, or maintain and repair any type of diesel engines. Includes mechanics working primarily with automobile or marine diesel engines.
Bus Drivers, School 53-3051 Drive a school bus to transport students. Ensure adherence to safety rules. May assist students in boarding or exiting.
Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity 53-3052 Drive bus or motor coach, including regular route operations, charters, and private carriage. May assist passengers with baggage. May collect fares or tickets.
Business Operations Specialists, All Other 13-1199 All business operations specialists not listed separately.
Business Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1011 Teach courses in business administration and management, such as accounting, finance, human resources, labor and industrial relations, marketing, and operations research. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Butchers and Meat Cutters 51-3021 Cut, trim, or prepare consumer-sized portions of meat for use or sale in retail establishments.
Buyers and Purchasing Agents (SOC broad occupation consisting of 13-1021, 13-1022, and 13-1023) 13-1020 Purchase good or services for further processing, resale, or to enable operation of an establishment. May analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of goods or services. May select, order, and authorize payment according to contractual agreements. May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products.
Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products 13-1021 Purchase farm products either for further processing or resale. Includes tree farm contractors, grain brokers and market operators, grain buyers, and tobacco buyers. May negotiate contracts.
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C
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters 51-7011 Cut, shape, and assemble wooden articles or set up and operate a variety of woodworking machines, such as power saws, jointers, and mortisers to surface, cut, or shape lumber or to fabricate parts for wood products. Excludes “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-7040).
Calibration Technologists and Technicians 17-3028 Execute or adapt procedures and techniques for calibrating measurement devices, by applying knowledge of measurement science, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and electronics, sometimes under the direction of engineering staff. Determine measurement standard suitability for calibrating measurement devices. May perform preventive maintenance on equipment. May perform corrective actions to address identified calibration problems. Excludes “Medical Equipment Preparers” (31-9093) and “Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters” (51-2061).
Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers 49-9061 Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including commercial video and motion picture camera equipment.
Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Film 27-4031 Operate television, video, or film camera to record images or scenes for television, video, or film productions.
Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels 53-5021 Command or supervise operations of ships and water vessels, such as tugboats and ferryboats. Required to hold license issued by U.S. Coast Guard. Excludes “Motorboat Operators” (53-5022).
Cardiologists 29-1212 Diagnose, treat, manage, and prevent diseases or conditions of the cardiovascular system. May further subspecialize in interventional procedures (e.g., balloon angioplasty and stent placement), echocardiography, or electrophysiology.
Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians 29-2031 Conduct tests on pulmonary or cardiovascular systems of patients for diagnostic, therapeutic, or research purposes. May conduct or assist in electrocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, pulmonary functions, lung capacity, and similar tests.
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School 25-2023 Teach occupational, vocational, career, or technical subjects to students at the middle, intermediate, or junior high school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1194 Teach vocational courses intended to provide occupational training below the baccalaureate level in subjects such as construction, mechanics/repair, manufacturing, transportation, or cosmetology, primarily to students who have graduated from or left high school. Teaching takes place in public or private schools whose primary business is academic or vocational education. Excludes “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151), “Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors” (25-3011), and postsecondary teachers classified elsewhere in the 25-1000 minor group. Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School 25-2032 Teach occupational, vocational, career, or technical subjects to students at the secondary school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Cargo and Freight Agents 43-5011 Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.
Carpenters 47-2031 Construct, erect, install, or repair structures and fixtures made of wood and comparable materials, such as concrete forms; building frameworks, including partitions, joists, studding, and rafters; and wood stairways, window and door frames, and hardwood floors. May also install cabinets, siding, drywall, and batt or roll insulation. Includes brattice builders who build doors or brattices (ventilation walls or partitions) in underground passageways.
Carpet Installers 47-2041 Lay and install carpet from rolls or blocks on floors. Install padding and trim flooring materials. Excludes “Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles” (47-2042).
Cartographers and Photogrammetrists 17-1021 Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for one or more purposes, such as legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems. May collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data.
Cashiers 41-2011 Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions. May use electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment. May process credit or debit card transactions and validate checks. Excludes “Gambling Change Persons and Booth Cashiers” (41-2012).
Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers 47-2051 Smooth and finish surfaces of poured concrete, such as floors, walks, sidewalks, roads, or curbs using a variety of hand and power tools. Align forms for sidewalks, curbs, or gutters; patch voids; and use saws to cut expansion joints. Installers of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in “Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-3011).
Chefs and Head Cooks 35-1011 Direct and may participate in the preparation, seasoning, and cooking of salads, soups, fish, meats, vegetables, desserts, or other foods. May plan and price menu items, order supplies, and keep records and accounts.
Chemical Engineers 17-2041 Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products, such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp, by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.
Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders 51-9011 Operate or tend equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels. Excludes “Chemical Plant and System Operators” (51-8091).
Chemical Plant and System Operators 51-8091 Control or operate entire chemical processes or system of machines.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Chemical Technicians 19-4031 Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.
Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1052 Teach courses pertaining to the chemical and physical properties and compositional changes of substances. Work may include providing instruction in the methods of qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1042) who teach biochemistry.
Chemists 19-2031 Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge. Excludes “Biochemists and Biophysicists” (19-1021) and “Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers” (19-2042).
Chief Executives 11-1011 Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.
Child, Family, and School Social Workers 21-1021 Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children. May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also advise teachers.
Childcare Workers 39-9011 Attend to children at schools, businesses, private households, and childcare institutions. Perform a variety of tasks, such as dressing, feeding, bathing, and overseeing play. Excludes “Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education” (25-2011) and “Teaching Assistants, Preschool, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary School, Except Special Education” (25-9042).
Chiropractors 29-1011 Assess, treat, and care for patients by manipulation of spine and musculoskeletal system. May provide spinal adjustment or address sacral or pelvic misalignment.
Choreographers 27-2032 Create new dance routines. Rehearse performance of routines. May direct and stage presentations.
Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians 17-3022 Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
Civil Engineers 17-2051 Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, and geotechnical engineers. Excludes “Hydrologists” (19-2043).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Civil Engineers,  R&D (use only for NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2053 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Civil Engineers.
Civil Engineers, Non R&D (use only for NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2052 Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, and geotechnical engineers. Excludes “Hydrologists” (19-2043). Illustrative examples: Bridge Engineers, Construction Engineers, Highway Engineers.
Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators 13-1031 Review settled claims to determine that payments and settlements are made in accordance with company practices and procedures. Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation. May also settle insurance claims. Excludes “Fire Inspectors and Investigators” (33-2021).
Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment 53-7061 Wash or otherwise clean vehicles, machinery, and other equipment. Use such materials as water, cleaning agents, brushes, cloths, and hoses. Excludes “Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners” (37-2011).
Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders 51-9192 Operate or tend machines to wash or clean products, such as barrels or kegs, glass items, tin plate, food, pulp, coal, plastic, or rubber, to remove impurities.
Clergy 21-2011 Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.
Clinical and Counseling Psychologists 19-3033 Assess, diagnose, and treat mental and emotional disorders of individuals through observation, interview, and psychological tests. Help individuals with distress or maladjustment understand their problems through their knowledge of case history, interviews with patients, and theory. Provide individual or group counseling services to assist individuals in achieving more effective personal, social, educational, and vocational development and adjustment. May design behavior modification programs and consult with medical personnel regarding the best treatment for patients. Excludes “Psychiatrists” (29-1223).
Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians (SOC broad occupation consisting of 29-2011 and 29-2012) 29-2010 Perform routine or complex medical laboratory tests for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Coaches and Scouts 27-2022 Instruct or coach groups or individuals in the fundamentals of sports for the primary purpose of competition. Demonstrate techniques and methods of participation. May evaluate athletes’ strengths and weaknesses as possible recruits or to improve the athletes’ technique to prepare them for competition. Those required to hold teaching certifications should be reported in the appropriate teaching category. Excludes “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091).
Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-9124 Set up, operate, or tend spraying or rolling machines to coat or paint any of a wide variety of products, including glassware, cloth, ceramics, metal, plastic, paper, or wood, with lacquer, silver, copper, rubber, varnish, glaze, enamel, oil, or rust-proofing materials. Includes painters of transportation vehicles such as painters in auto body repair facilities. Excludes “Plating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4193).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers 51-2021 Wind wire coils used in electrical components, such as resistors and transformers, and in electrical equipment and instruments, such as field cores, bobbins, armature cores, electrical motors, generators, and control equipment.
Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers 49-9091 Install, service, adjust, or repair coin, vending, or amusement machines including video games, juke boxes, pinball machines, or slot machines.
Commercial and Industrial Designers 27-1021 Design and develop manufactured products, such as cars, home appliances, and children’s toys. Combine artistic talent with research on product use, marketing, and materials to create the most functional and appealing product design.
Commercial Divers 49-9092 Work below surface of water, using surface-supplied air or scuba equipment to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment. May conduct tests or experiments, rig explosives, or photograph structures or marine life. Excludes “Athletes and Sports Competitors” (27-2021), “Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers” (33-3051), and “Fishing and Hunting Workers” (45-3031).
Commercial Pilots 53-2012 Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft on nonscheduled air carrier routes, or helicopters. Requires Commercial Pilot certificate. Includes charter pilots with similar certification, and air ambulance and air tour pilots. Excludes regional, national, and international airline pilots. Excludes “Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians” (17-3024).
Communications Equipment Operators, All Other 43-2099 All communications equipment operators not listed separately.
Communications Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1122 Teach courses in communications, such as organizational communications, public relations, radio/television broadcasting, and journalism. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other 21-1099 All community and social service specialists not listed separately.
Community Health Workers 21-1094 Promote health within a community by assisting individuals to adopt healthy behaviors. Serve as an advocate for the health needs of individuals by assisting community residents in effectively communicating with healthcare providers or social service agencies. Act as liaison or advocate and implement programs that promote, maintain, and improve individual and overall community health. May deliver health-related preventive services such as blood pressure, glaucoma, and hearing screenings. May collect data to help identify community health needs. Excludes “Health Education Specialists” (21-1091).
Compensation and Benefits Managers 11-3111 Plan, direct, or coordinate compensation and benefits activities of an organization. Job analysis and position description managers are included in “Human Resources Managers” (11-3121).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists 13-1141 Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer. May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.
Compliance Officers 13-1041 Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere. Excludes “Financial Examiners" (13-2061), “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (19-5011), “Occupational Health and Safety Technicians” (19-5012), “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093), “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011), “Construction and Building Inspectors” (47-4011), and “Transportation Inspectors” (53-6051).
Computer and Information Research Scientists 15-1221 Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software.
Computer and Information Systems Managers 11-3021 Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming. Excludes “Computer Occupations” (15-1211 through 15-1299).
Computer Hardware Engineers 17-2061 Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components. Excludes “Software Developers” (15-1252) and “Web Developers” (15-1254).
Computer Hardware Engineers,  R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2063 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Computer Hardware Engineers.
Computer Hardware Engineers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2062 Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components. Excludes “Software Developers” (15-1252) and “Web Developers” (15-1254). Illustrative examples: Computer Hardware Designers, Computer Hardware Developers.
Computer Network Architects 15-1241 Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks. Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning, including analysis of capacity needs for network infrastructures. May also design network and computer security measures. May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1212), “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1231), and “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
Computer Network Architects, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1247 Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks. Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning, including analysis of capacity needs for network infrastructures. May also design network and computer security measures. May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes "Information Security Analysts" (15-1212), "Computer Network Support Specialists" (15-1231), and "Network and Computer Systems Administrators" (15-1244). Illustrative examples: Computer Network Engineers, Network Designers, Network Developers.
Computer Network Architects, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1248 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities involving computer and information networks.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Computer Network Support Specialists 15-1231 Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), cloud networks, servers, and other data communications networks. Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption. Excludes “Computer Network Architects” (15-1241) and “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators 51-9161 Operate computer-controlled tools, machines, or robots to machine or process parts, tools, or other work pieces made of metal, plastic, wood, stone, or other materials. May also set up and maintain equipment.
Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Programmers 51-9162 Develop programs to control machining or processing of materials by automatic machine tools, equipment, or systems. May also set up, operate, or maintain equipment.
Computer Occupations, All Other 15-1299 All computer occupations not listed separately. Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021), “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061), “Electrical and Electronics Engineers” (17-2070), “Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021), “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021), and “Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers” (49-2011).
Computer Programmers 15-1251 Create, modify, and test the code and scripts that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software and web developers or other individuals. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.
Computer Programmers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112-and 6113) 15-1293 Create, modify, and test the code and scripts that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software and web developers or other individuals. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information. Illustrative examples: Applications Programmer, Computer Language Coder, IT Programmer, Systems Programmer.
Computer Programmers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112  and 6113) 15-1294 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to computer programming.
Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1021 Teach courses in computer science. May specialize in a field of computer science, such as the design and function of computers or operations and research analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Computer Systems Analysts 15-1211 Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to develop and implement solutions to complex applications problems, system administration issues, or network concerns. Perform systems management and integration functions, improve existing computer systems, and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and schedule limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software.
Computer Systems Analysts, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1217 Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to develop and implement solutions to complex applications problems, system administration issues, or network concerns. Perform systems management and integration functions, improve existing computer systems, and review computer system capabilities, workflow and schedule limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software. Illustrative examples: Applications Analyst, Data Processing Systems Analyst, Information Systems Analyst, Systems Architect.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Computer Systems Analysts, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1228 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities related to their work as Computer Systems Analysts.
Computer User Support Specialists 15-1232 Provide technical assistance to computer users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, via telephone, or electronically. May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems. Excludes “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers 49-2011 Repair, maintain, or install computers, word processing systems, automated teller machines, and electronic office machines, such as duplicating and fax machines.
Concierges 39-6012 Assist patrons at hotel, apartment, or office building with personal services. May take messages; arrange or give advice on transportation, business services, or entertainment; or monitor guest requests for housekeeping and maintenance.
Conservation Scientists 19-1031 Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment. May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands. May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering. Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists” (19-1023) and “Foresters” (19-1032).
Construction and Building Inspectors 47-4011 Inspect structures using engineering skills to determine structural soundness and compliance with specifications, building codes, and other regulations. Inspections may be general in nature or may be limited to a specific area, such as electrical systems or plumbing.
Construction and Related Workers, All Other (Optional - estimates rolled up to 47-4090) 47-4099 All construction and related workers not listed separately. Illustrative example: Aluminum Pool Installer, Waterproofer
Construction Laborers 47-2061 Perform tasks involving physical labor at construction sites. May operate hand and power tools of all types: air hammers, earth tampers, cement mixers, small mechanical hoists, surveying and measuring equipment, and a variety of other equipment and instruments. May clean and prepare sites, dig trenches, set braces to support the sides of excavations, erect scaffolding, and clean up rubble, debris, and other waste materials. May assist other craft workers. Construction laborers who primarily assist a particular craft worker are classified under “Helpers, Construction Trades” (47-3010). Excludes “Hazardous Materials Removal Workers” (47-4041).
Construction Managers 11-9021 Plan, direct, or coordinate, usually through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems. Participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, budgeting, and implementation. Includes managers in specialized construction fields, such as carpentry or plumbing.
Continuous Mining Machine Operators 47-5041 Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors, shuttle cars, or trucks in a continuous operation.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door 49-9012 Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.
Conveyor Operators and Tenders 53-7011 Control or tend conveyors or conveyor systems that move materials or products to and from stockpiles, processing stations, departments, or vehicles. May control speed and routing of materials or products.
Cooks, All Other 35-2019 All cooks not listed separately.
Cooks, Fast Food 35-2011 Prepare and cook food in a fast food restaurant with a limited menu. Duties of these cooks are limited to preparation of a few basic items and normally involve operating large-volume single-purpose cooking equipment.
Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria 35-2012 Prepare and cook large quantities of food for institutions, such as schools, hospitals, or cafeterias.
Cooks, Private Household 35-2013 Prepare meals in private homes. Includes personal chefs.
Cooks, Restaurant 35-2014 Prepare, season, and cook dishes such as soups, meats, vegetables, or desserts in restaurants. May order supplies, keep records and accounts, price items on menu, or plan menu.
Cooks, Short Order 35-2015 Prepare and cook to order a variety of foods that require only a short preparation time. May take orders from customers and serve patrons at counters or tables. Excludes “Cooks, Fast Food” (35-2011).
Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders 51-9193 Operate or tend equipment such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, to cool or freeze products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals.
Correctional Officers and Jailers 33-3012 Guard inmates in penal or rehabilitative institutions in accordance with established regulations and procedures. May guard prisoners in transit between jail, courtroom, prison, or other point. Includes deputy sheriffs and police who spend the majority of their time guarding prisoners in correctional institutions.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Correspondence Clerks 43-4021 Compose letters or electronic correspondence in reply to requests for merchandise, damage claims, credit and other information, delinquent accounts, incorrect billings, or unsatisfactory services. Duties may include gathering data to formulate reply and preparing correspondence.
Cost Estimators 13-1051 Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.
Costume Attendants 39-3092 Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers. May assist with multiple costume changes during performances.
Counselors, All Other 21-1019 All counselors not listed separately.
Counter and Rental Clerks 41-2021 Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services. May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023), “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081), “Order Clerks” (43-4151), and “Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks” (43-4181).
Couriers and Messengers 43-5021 Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance. Excludes “Light Truck Drivers” (53-3033).
Court Reporters and Simultaneous Captioners 27-3092 Use verbatim methods and equipment to capture, store, retrieve, and transcribe pretrial and trial proceedings or other information. Includes stenocaptioners who operate computerized stenographic captioning equipment to provide captions of live or prerecorded broadcasts for hearing-impaired viewers.
Court, Municipal, and License Clerks 43-4031 Perform clerical duties for courts of law, municipalities, or governmental licensing agencies and bureaus. May prepare docket of cases to be called; secure information for judges and court; prepare draft agendas or bylaws for town or city council; answer official correspondence; keep fiscal records and accounts; issue licenses or permits; and record data, administer tests, or collect fees. Clerks of Court are classified in “Managers, All Other” (11-9199).
Craft Artists 27-1012 Create or reproduce handmade objects for sale and exhibition using a variety of techniques, such as welding, weaving, pottery, and needlecraft.
Crane and Tower Operators 53-7021 Operate mechanical boom and cable or tower and cable equipment to lift and move materials, machines, or products in many directions.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Credit Analysts 13-2041 Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decisionmaking. Excludes “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054).
Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks 43-4041 Authorize credit charges against customers’ accounts. Investigate history and credit standing of individuals or business establishments applying for credit. May interview applicants to obtain personal and financial data, determine credit worthiness, process applications, and notify customers of acceptance or rejection of credit.
Credit Counselors 13-2071 Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explain loan requirements or restrictions. May help develop debt management plans or student financial aid packages. May advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, bankruptcy, or student financial aid counseling.
Crematory Operators 39-4012 Operate crematory equipment to reduce human or animal remains to bone fragments in accordance with state and local regulations. Duties may include preparing the body for cremation and performing general maintenance on crematory equipment. May use traditional flame-based cremation, calcination, or alkaline hydrolysis.
Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1111 Teach courses in criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement administration. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Crossing Guards and Flaggers 33-9091 Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at such places as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites.
Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-9021 Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber.
Curators 25-4012 Administer collections, such as artwork, collectibles, historic items, or scientific specimens of museums or other institutions. May conduct instructional, research, or public service activities of institution.
Customer Service Representatives 43-4051 Interact with customers to provide basic or scripted information in response to routine inquiries about products and services. May handle and resolve general complaints. Excludes individuals whose duties are primarily installation, sales, repair, and technical support.
Cutters and Trimmers, Hand 51-9031 Use hand tools or hand-held power tools to cut and trim a variety of manufactured items, such as carpet, fabric, stone, glass, or rubber.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-9032 Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material. Excludes “Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4031), “Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-6062), and “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-7040).
Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4031 Set up, operate, or tend machines to saw, cut, shear, slit, punch, crimp, notch, bend, or straighten metal or plastic material.
D
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Dancers 27-2031 Perform dances. May perform on stage, for broadcasting, or for video recording.
Data Entry Keyers 43-9021 Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Excludes “Word Processors and Typists” (43-9022).
Data Scientists 15-2051 Develop and implement a set of techniques or analytics applications to transform raw data into meaningful information using data-oriented programming languages and visualization software. Apply data mining, data modeling, natural language processing, and machine learning to extract and analyze information from large structured and unstructured datasets. Visualize, interpret, and report data findings. May create dynamic data reports. Excludes “Statisticians” (15-2041), “Cartographers and Photogrammetrists” (17-1021), and “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021).
Database Administrators 15-1242 Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems. Coordinate changes to computer databases. Identify, investigate, and resolve database performance issues, database capacity, and database scalability. May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases. Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1212) and “Database Architects” (15-1243).
Database Architects 15-1243 Design strategies for enterprise databases, data warehouse systems, and multidimensional networks. Set standards for database operations, programming, query processes, and security. Model, design, and construct large relational databases or data warehouses. Create and optimize data models for warehouse infrastructure and workflow. Integrate new systems with existing warehouse structure and refine system performance and functionality. Excludes “Database Administrators” (15-1242).
Demonstrators and Product Promoters 41-9011 Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product. May sell demonstrated merchandise.
Dental Assistants 31-9091 Perform limited clinical duties under the direction of a dentist. Clinical duties may include equipment preparation and sterilization, preparing patients for treatment, assisting the dentist during treatment, and providing patients with instructions for oral healthcare procedures. May perform administrative duties such as scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes.
Dental Hygienists 29-1292 Administer oral hygiene care to patients. Assess patient oral hygiene problems or needs and maintain health records. Advise patients on oral health maintenance and disease prevention. May provide advanced care such as providing fluoride treatment or administering topical anesthesia.
Dental Laboratory Technicians 51-9081 Construct and repair full or partial dentures or dental appliances. Excludes “Dental Assistants” (31-9091).
Dentists, All Other Specialists 29-1029 All dentists not listed separately.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Dentists, General 29-1021 Examine, diagnose, and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums. May treat diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting oral hygiene and retention of teeth. May fit dental appliances or provide preventive care. Excludes “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons” (29-1022), “Orthodontists” (29-1023), “Prosthodontists” (29-1024), and “Dentists, All Other Specialists” (29-1029).
Dermatologists 29-1213 Diagnose and treat diseases relating to the skin, hair, and nails. May perform both medical and dermatological surgery functions.
Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas 47-5011 Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud or fluid through drill hole.
Designers, All Other 27-1029 All designers not listed separately.
Desktop Publishers 43-9031 Format typescript and graphic elements using computer software to produce publication-ready material.
Detectives and Criminal Investigators 33-3021 Conduct investigations related to suspected violations of federal, state, or local laws to prevent or solve crimes. Excludes “Private Detectives and Investigators” (33-9021).
Diagnostic Medical Sonographers 29-2032 Produce ultrasonic recordings of internal organs for use by physicians. Includes vascular technologists. Excludes “Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians” (29-2031).
Dietetic Technicians 29-2051 Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian. May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.
Dietitians and Nutritionists 29-1031 Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease. May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.
Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers 35-9011 Facilitate food service. Clean tables; remove dirty dishes; replace soiled table linens; set tables; replenish supply of clean linens, silverware, glassware, and dishes; supply service bar with food; and serve items such as water, condiments, and coffee to patrons.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Directors, Religious Activities and Education 21-2021 Coordinate or design programs and conduct outreach to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling, guidance, and leadership relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.
Disc Jockeys, Except Radio 27-2091 Play prerecorded music for live audiences at venues or events such as clubs, parties, or wedding receptions. May use techniques such as mixing, cutting, or sampling to manipulate recordings. May also perform as emcee (master of ceremonies). Radio disc jockeys are included in “Broadcast Announcers and Radio Disc Jockeys” (27-3011). Excludes “Musicians and Singers” (27-2042), “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011), and “Sound Engineering Technicians” (27-4014).
Dishwashers 35-9021 Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils.
Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance 43-5032 Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business. Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.
Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers 41-9091 Sell goods or services door-to-door or on the street.
Drafters, All Other 17-3019 All drafters not listed separately.
Dredge Operators 53-7031 Operate dredge to remove sand, gravel, or other materials in order to excavate and maintain navigable channels in waterways.
Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4032 Set up, operate, or tend drilling machines to drill, bore, ream, mill, or countersink metal or plastic work pieces.
Driver/Sales Workers 53-3031 Drive truck or other vehicle over established routes or within an established territory and sell or deliver goods, such as food products, including restaurant take-out items, or pick up or deliver items such as commercial laundry. May also take orders, collect payment, or stock merchandise at point of delivery. Excludes “Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers” (49-9091) and “Light Truck Drivers” (53-3033).
Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers 47-2081 Apply plasterboard or other wallboard to ceilings or interior walls of buildings. Apply or mount acoustical tiles or blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing materials to ceilings and walls of buildings to reduce or reflect sound. Materials may be of decorative quality. Includes lathers who fasten wooden, metal, or rockboard lath to walls, ceilings, or partitions of buildings to provide support base for plaster, fireproofing, or acoustical material. Excludes “Carpenters” (47-2031), “Carpet Installers” (47-2041), and “Tile and Stone Setters” (47-2044).
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E
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas 47-5023 Operate a variety of drills such as rotary, churn, and pneumatic to tap subsurface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction. Includes horizontal and earth boring machine operators.
Economics Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1063 Teach courses in economics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Economists 19-3011 Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy. May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods. Excludes “Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists” (13-1161).
Editors 27-3041 Plan, coordinate, revise, or edit written material. May review proposals and drafts for possible publication.
Education Administrators, All Other 11-9039 All education administrators not listed separately.
Education Administrators, Kindergarten through Secondary 11-9032 Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of kindergarten, elementary, or secondary schools.
Education Administrators, Postsecondary 11-9033 Plan, direct, or coordinate student instruction, administration, and services, as well as other research and educational activities, at postsecondary institutions, including universities, colleges, and junior and community colleges.
Education and Childcare Administrators, Preschool and Daycare 11-9031 Plan, direct, or coordinate academic or nonacademic activities of preschools or childcare centers and programs, including before- and after-school care. Excludes “Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education” (25-2011) and “Childcare Workers” (39-9011).
Education Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1081 Teach courses pertaining to education, such as counseling, curriculum, guidance, instruction, teacher education, and teaching English as a second language. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Educational Instruction and Library Workers, All Other 25-9099 All educational instruction and library workers not listed separately.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Educational, Guidance, and Career Counselors and Advisors 21-1012 Advise and assist students and provide educational and vocational guidance services.
Electric Motor, Power Tool, and Related Repairers 49-2092 Repair, maintain, or install electric motors, wiring, or switches.
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologists and Technicians 17-3023 Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, adjust, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions. Excludes “Broadcast Technicians” (27-4012).
Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 51-2028) 51-2022 Assemble or modify electrical or electronic equipment, such as computers, test equipment telemetering systems, electric motors, and batteries.
Electrical and Electronics Drafters 17-3012 Prepare wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used for the manufacture, installation, or repair of electrical equipment.
Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment 49-2093 Install, adjust, or maintain mobile electronics communication equipment, including sound, sonar, security, navigation, and surveillance systems on trains, watercraft, or other mobile equipment. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091) and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment 49-2094 Repair, test, adjust, or install electronic equipment, such as industrial controls, transmitters, and antennas. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091), “Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment” (49-2093), and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay 49-2095 Inspect, test, repair, or maintain electrical equipment in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays.
Electrical Engineers 17-2071 Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061).
Electrical Engineers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2073 Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061).  Illustrative examples: Electrical Systems Engineer, Illuminating Engineer, Power Distribution Engineer.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Electrical Engineers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2074 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Electrical Engineers.
Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers 49-9051 Install or repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems. May erect poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers. Excludes “Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay” (49-2095).
Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical Assemblers, Except Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers (OEWS aggregation to OEWS-specific code and title) 51-2028 Assemble or modify electrical, electronic, or electromechanical equipment or devices.
Electricians 47-2111 Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. May install or service street lights, intercom systems, or electrical control systems. Excludes “Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers” (49-2098).
Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians 17-3024 Operate, test, maintain, or adjust unmanned, automated, servomechanical, or electromechanical equipment. May operate unmanned submarines, aircraft, or other equipment to observe or record visual information at sites such as oil rigs, crop fields, buildings, or for similar infrastructure, deep ocean exploration, or hazardous waste removal. May assist engineers in testing and designing robotics equipment.
Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers (Optional - estimates rolled up to 51-2028) 51-2023 Assemble or modify electromechanical equipment or devices, such as servomechanisms, gyros, dynamometers, magnetic drums, tape drives, brakes, control linkage, actuators, and appliances.
Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles 49-2096 Install, diagnose, or repair communications, sound, security, or navigation equipment in motor vehicles.
Electronics Engineers, Except Computer 17-2072 Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061).
Electronics Engineers, Except Computer Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2075 Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061). Illustrative examples: Circuit Design Engineers, Electronic Design Automation Engineers, and Telecommunication Engineers.
Electronics Engineers, Except Computer R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2076 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Electronics Engineers, Except Computer. Exclude "Computer Hardware Engineers, R&D" (17-2063).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education 25-2021 Teach academic and social skills to students at the elementary school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Elevator and Escalator Installers and Repairers 47-4021 Assemble, install, repair, or maintain electric or hydraulic freight or passenger elevators, escalators, or dumbwaiters.
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs 43-4061 Determine eligibility of persons applying to receive assistance from government programs and agency resources, such as welfare, unemployment benefits, social security, and public housing.
Embalmers 39-4011 Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.
Emergency Management Directors 11-9161 Plan and direct disaster response or crisis management activities, provide disaster preparedness training, and prepare emergency plans and procedures for natural (e.g., hurricanes, floods, earthquakes), wartime, or technological (e.g., nuclear power plant emergencies or hazardous materials spills) disasters or hostage situations.
Emergency Medical Technicians 29-2042 Assess injuries and illnesses and administer basic emergency medical care. May transport injured or sick persons to medical facilities. Excludes “Paramedics” (29-2043), “Firefighters” (33-2011), and “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011).
Emergency Medicine Physicians 29-1214 Make immediate medical decisions and act to prevent death or further disability. Provide immediate recognition, evaluation, care, stabilization, and disposition of patients. May direct emergency medical staff in an emergency department.
Engine and Other Machine Assemblers 51-2031 Construct, assemble, or rebuild machines, such as engines, turbines, and similar equipment used in such industries as construction, extraction, textiles, and paper manufacturing.
Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1032 Teach courses pertaining to the application of physical laws and principles of engineering for the development of machines, materials, instruments, processes, and services. Includes teachers of subjects such as chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mineral, and petroleum engineering. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021).
Engineering Technologists and Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other 17-3029 All engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters, not listed separately.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Engineers, All Other 17-2199 All engineers not listed separately. Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031), “Locomotive Engineers” (53-4011), and “Ship Engineers” (53-5031).
English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1123 Teach courses in English language and literature, including linguistics and comparative literature. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other 27-2099 All entertainers and performers, sports and related workers not listed separately.
Entertainment and Recreation Managers, Except Gambling 11-9072 Plan, direct, or coordinate entertainment and recreational activities and operations of a recreational facility, including cruise ships and parks.
Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other 39-3099 All entertainment attendants and related workers not listed separately.
Environmental Engineering Technologists and Technicians 17-3025 Apply theory and principles of environmental engineering to modify, test, and operate equipment and devices used in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental problems, including waste treatment and site remediation, under the direction of engineering staff or scientists. May assist in the development of environmental remediation devices.
Environmental Engineers 17-2081 Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines. Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology.
Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health 19-4042 Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist. May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing.
Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1053 Teach courses in environmental science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1043).
Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health 19-2041 Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or public health. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources. Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists” (19-1023), “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031), “Forest and Conservation Technicians” (19-4071), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (19-5011), “Fish and Game Wardens” (33-3031), and “Forest and Conservation Workers” (45-4011).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Epidemiologists 19-1041 Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes. May develop the means for prevention and control.
Etchers and Engravers 51-9194 Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk screen etchers. Photoengravers are included in “Prepress Technicians and Workers” (51-5111).
Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators, Surface Mining 47-5022 Operate or tend machinery at surface mining site, equipped with scoops, shovels, or buckets to excavate and load loose materials.
Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants 43-6011 Provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, and handling information requests, as well as performing routine administrative functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings. May also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff. Excludes “Secretaries” (43-6012 through 43-6014).
Exercise Physiologists 29-1128 Assess, plan, or implement fitness programs that include exercise or physical activities such as those designed to improve cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or flexibility. Excludes “Physical Therapists” (29-1123), “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091), and “Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors” (39-9031).
Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors 39-9031 Instruct or coach groups or individuals in exercise activities for the primary purpose of personal fitness. Demonstrate techniques and form, observe participants, and explain to them corrective measures necessary to improve their skills. Develop and implement individualized approaches to exercise. Excludes “Educational Instruction and Library Occupations” (25-0000), “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022), and “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091).
Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters 47-5032 Place and detonate explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials. May perform specialized handling, storage, and accounting procedures.
Extraction Workers, All Other 47-5099 All extraction workers not listed separately.
Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4021 Set up, operate, or tend machines to extrude or draw thermoplastic or metal materials into tubes, rods, hoses, wire, bars, or structural shapes.
Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers 51-6091 Set up, operate, or tend machines that extrude and form continuous filaments from synthetic materials, such as liquid polymer, rayon, and fiberglass.
Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-9041 Set up, operate, or tend machines, such as glass-forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to shape and form products such as glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile, clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-6042) and “Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9196).
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers 51-6092 Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts. May also mark and cut fabrics and apparel.
Facilities Managers 11-3013 Plan, direct, or coordinate operations and functionalities of facilities and buildings. May include surrounding grounds or multiple facilities of an organization’s campus. Excludes “Administrative Services Managers” (11-3012), “Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers” (11-9141), “First-Line Supervisors of Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Workers” (37-1010), “First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics and Repairers” (49-1011), and “Maintenance and Repair Workers, General” (49-9071).
Fallers 45-4021 Use axes or chainsaws to fell trees using knowledge of tree characteristics and cutting techniques to control direction of fall and minimize tree damage.
Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1192 Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Family Medicine Physicians 29-1215 Diagnose, treat, and provide preventive care to individuals and families across the lifespan. May refer patients to specialists when needed for further diagnosis or treatment. Excludes “General Internal Medicine Physicians” (29-1216) and “Pediatricians, General” (29-1221).
Farm and Home Management Educators 25-9021 Instruct and advise individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home management activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to advance agricultural and home management activities. May develop educational outreach programs. May instruct on either agricultural issues such as agricultural processes and techniques, pest management, and food safety, or on home management issues such as budgeting, nutrition, and child development. Excludes “Dietitians and Nutritionists” (29-1031).
Farm Equipment Mechanics and Service Technicians 49-3041 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul farm machinery and vehicles, such as tractors, harvesters, dairy equipment, and irrigation systems. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031).
Farm Labor Contractors 13-1074 Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers. May transport, house, and provide meals for workers.
Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers 11-9013 Plan, direct, or coordinate the management or operation of farms, ranches, greenhouses, aquacultural operations, nurseries, timber tracts, or other agricultural establishments. May hire, train, and supervise farm workers or contract for services to carry out the day-to-day activities of the managed operation. May engage in or supervise planting, cultivating, harvesting, and financial and marketing activities. Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers” (45-1011).
Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse 45-2092 Manually plant, cultivate, and harvest vegetables, fruits, nuts, horticultural specialties, and field crops. Use hand tools, such as shovels, trowels, hoes, tampers, pruning hooks, shears, and knives. Duties may include tilling soil and applying fertilizers; transplanting, weeding, thinning, or pruning crops; applying pesticides; or cleaning, grading, sorting, packing, and loading harvested products. May construct trellises, repair fences and farm buildings, or participate in irrigation activities. Excludes “Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation” (37-3012), “Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products” (45-2041), and “Forest, Conservation, and Logging Workers” (45-4011 through 45-4029).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals 45-2093 Attend to live farm, ranch, open range or aquacultural animals that may include cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses and other equines, poultry, rabbits, finfish, shellfish, and bees. Attend to animals produced for animal products, such as meat, fur, skins, feathers, eggs, milk, and honey. Duties may include feeding, watering, herding, grazing, milking, castrating, branding, de-beaking, weighing, catching, and loading animals. May maintain records on animals; examine animals to detect diseases and injuries; assist in birth deliveries; and administer medications, vaccinations, or insecticides as appropriate. May clean and maintain animal housing areas. Includes workers who shear wool from sheep and collect eggs in hatcheries.
Fashion Designers 27-1022 Design clothing and accessories. Create original designs or adapt fashion trends.
Fast Food and Counter Workers 35-3023 Perform duties such as taking orders and serving food and beverages. Serve customers at counter or from a steam table. May take payment. May prepare food and beverages. Counter attendants who also wait tables are included in “Waiters and Waitresses” (35-3031),
Fence Erectors 47-4031 Erect and repair fences and fence gates, using hand and power tools.
Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators 51-2051 Laminate layers of fiberglass on molds to form boat decks and hulls, bodies for golf carts, automobiles, or other products.
File Clerks 43-4071 File correspondence, cards, invoices, receipts, and other records in alphabetical or numerical order or according to the filing system used. Locate and remove material from file when requested.
Film and Video Editors 27-4032 Edit moving images on film, video, or other media. May work with a producer or director to organize images for final production. May edit or synchronize soundtracks with images. Excludes “Sound Engineering Technicians” (27-4014).
Financial and Investment Analysts 13-2051 Conduct quantitative analyses of information involving investment programs or financial data of public or private institutions, including valuation of businesses. Excludes “Budget Analysts” (13-2031), “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054), and “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031).
Financial Clerks, All Other 43-3099 All financial clerks not listed separately.
Financial Examiners 13-2061 Enforce or ensure compliance with laws and regulations governing financial and securities institutions and financial and real estate transactions. May examine, verify, or authenticate records.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Financial Managers 11-3031 Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment. Excludes “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054).
Financial Risk Specialists 13-2054 Analyze and measure exposure to credit and market risk threatening the assets, earning capacity, or economic state of an organization. May make recommendations to limit risk. Excludes “Credit Analysts” (13-2041).
Financial Specialists, All Other 13-2099 All financial specialists not listed separately.
Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators 27-1013 Create original artwork using any of a wide variety of media and techniques.
Fire Inspectors and Investigators 33-2021 Inspect buildings to detect fire hazards and enforce local ordinances and state laws, or investigate and gather facts to determine cause of fires and explosions.
Firefighters 33-2011 Control and extinguish fires or respond to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk. Duties may include fire prevention, emergency medical service, hazardous material response, search and rescue, and disaster assistance.
First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers 47-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extraction workers.
First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers 33-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers.
First-Line Supervisors of Entertainment and Recreation Workers, Except Gambling Services 39-1014 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of entertainment and recreation related workers.
First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers 45-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, aquacultural, and related workers. Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-1012).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
First-Line Supervisors of Firefighting and Prevention Workers 33-1021 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention and control.
First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers 35-1012 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.
First-Line Supervisors of Gambling Services Workers 39-1013 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers in assigned gambling areas. May circulate among tables, observe operations, and ensure that stations and games are covered for each shift. May verify and pay off jackpots. May reset slot machines after payoffs and make repairs or adjustments to slot machines or recommend removal of slot machines for repair. May plan and organize activities and services for guests in hotels/casinos.
First-Line Supervisors of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 53.1048) 53-1042 Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of helpers, laborers, or material movers, hand.
First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers 37-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.
First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers 37-1012 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities. Work may involve reviewing contracts to ascertain service, machine, and workforce requirements; answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, material, and price ranges; and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs.
First-Line Supervisors of Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 53-1048) 53-1043 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of material-moving machine and vehicle operators and helpers.
First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers 49-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers. May also advise customers on recommended services. Excludes team or work leaders.
First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers 41-1012 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers. May perform duties such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.
First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers 43-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
First-Line Supervisors of Passenger Attendants 53-1044 Supervise and coordinate activities of passenger attendants. Includes supervisors of “Flight Attendants” (53-2031).
First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers 39-1022 Supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers.
First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives 33-1012 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of police force.
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers 51-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.
First-Line Supervisors of Protective Service Workers, All Other 33-1099 All protective service supervisors not listed separately above.
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers 41-1011 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department. Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.
First-Line Supervisors of Security Workers 33-1091 Directly supervise and coordinate activities of security workers and security guards.
First-Line Supervisors of Transportation and Material-Moving workers, Except Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors and First-Line Supervisors of Passenger Attendants (OEWS aggregation to OEWS-specific code and title) 53-1048 Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of helpers, labrers, and material movers; or transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators and helpers.
First-Line Supervisors of Transportation Workers, All Other 53-1049 All first-line supervisors of transportation workers not listed separately. Illustrative examples: Gas Station Supervisor.
Fish and Game Wardens 33-3031 Patrol assigned area to prevent fish and game law violations. Investigate reports of damage to crops or property by wildlife. Compile biological data.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Fishing and Hunting Workers 45-3031 Hunt, trap, catch, or gather wild animals or aquatic animals and plants. May use nets, traps, or other equipment. May haul catch onto ship or other vessel. Aquacultural laborers who work on fish farms are included in “Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals” (45-2093).
Flight Attendants 53-2031 Monitor safety of the aircraft cabin. Provide services to airline passengers, explain safety information, serve food and beverages, and respond to emergency incidents.
Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles 47-2042 Apply blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing, sound-deadening, or decorative coverings to floors.
Floor Sanders and Finishers 47-2043 Scrape and sand wooden floors to smooth surfaces using floor scraper and floor sanding machine, and apply coats of finish.
Floral Designers 27-1023 Design, cut, and arrange live, dried, or artificial flowers and foliage.
Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders 51-3091 Operate or tend food or tobacco roasting, baking, or drying equipment, including hearth ovens, kiln driers, roasters, char kilns, and vacuum drying equipment.
Food Batchmakers 51-3092 Set up and operate equipment that mixes or blends ingredients used in the manufacturing of food products. Includes candy makers and cheese makers.
Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders 51-3093 Operate or tend cooking equipment, such as steam cooking vats, deep fry cookers, pressure cookers, kettles, and boilers, to prepare food products. Excludes “Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-3091).
Food Preparation and Serving Related Workers, All Other 35-9099 All food preparation and serving related workers not listed separately.
Food Preparation Workers 35-2021 Perform a variety of food preparation duties other than cooking, such as preparing cold foods and shellfish, slicing meat, and brewing coffee or tea.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Food Processing Workers, All Other 51-3099 All food processing workers not listed separately
Food Science Technicians 19-4013 Work with food scientists or technologists to perform standardized qualitative and quantitative tests to determine physical or chemical properties of food or beverage products. Includes technicians who assist in research and development of production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and use of foods.
Food Scientists and Technologists 19-1012 Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant 35-3041 Serve food to individuals outside of a restaurant environment, such as in hotel rooms, hospital rooms, residential care facilities, or cars. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023) and “Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers” (41-9091).
Food Service Managers 11-9051 Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages. Excludes “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).
Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1124 Teach languages and literature courses in languages other than English. Includes teachers of American Sign Language (ASL). Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Forensic Science Technicians 19-4092 Collect, identify, classify, and analyze physical evidence related to criminal investigations. Perform tests on weapons or substances, such as fiber, hair, and tissue to determine significance to investigation. May testify as expert witnesses on evidence or crime laboratory techniques. May serve as specialists in area of expertise, such as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, or biochemistry.
Forest and Conservation Technicians 19-4071 Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts under the direction of foresters, or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation and fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031) and “Foresters” (19-1032).
Forest and Conservation Workers 45-4011 Under supervision, perform manual labor necessary to develop, maintain, or protect areas such as forests, forested areas, woodlands, wetlands, and rangelands through such activities as raising and transporting seedlings; combating insects, pests, and diseases harmful to plant life; and building structures to control water, erosion, and leaching of soil. Includes forester aides, seedling pullers, tree planters, and gatherers of nontimber forestry products such as pine straw.
Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists 33-2022 Enforce fire regulations, inspect forest for fire hazards, and recommend forest fire prevention or control measures. May report forest fires and weather conditions.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Foresters 19-1032 Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes. May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber’s worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement. May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations. May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.
Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1043 Teach courses in forestry and conservation science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes “Agricultural Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1041) and “Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1053).
Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4022 Set up, operate, or tend forging machines to taper, shape, or form metal or plastic parts.
Foundry Mold and Coremakers 51-4071 Make or form wax or sand cores or molds used in the production of metal castings in foundries. Excludes “Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4072) and “Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic” (51-9195).
Fundraisers 13-1131 Organize activities to raise funds or otherwise solicit and gather monetary donations or other gifts for an organization. May design and produce promotional materials. May also raise awareness of the organization’s work, goals, and financial needs.
Fundraising Managers 11-2033 Plan, direct, or coordinate activities to solicit and maintain funds for special projects or nonprofit organizations.
Funeral Attendants 39-4021 Perform a variety of tasks during funeral, such as placing casket in parlor or chapel prior to service, arranging floral offerings or lights around casket, directing or escorting mourners, closing casket, and issuing and storing funeral equipment.
Funeral Home Managers 11-9171 Plan, direct, or coordinate the services or resources of funeral homes. Includes activities such as determining prices for services or merchandise and managing the facilities of funeral homes. Excludes “Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Arrangers” (39-4031).
Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders 51-9051 Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal, plastic, or food processing equipment. Includes activities such as annealing glass, drying lumber, curing rubber, removing moisture from materials, or boiling soap.
Furniture Finishers 51-7021 Shape, finish, and refinish damaged, worn, or used furniture or new high-grade furniture to specified color or finish.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Gambling and Sports Book Writers and Runners 39-3012 Post information enabling patrons to wager on various races and sporting events. Assist in the operation of games such as keno and bingo. May operate random number-generating equipment and announce the numbers for patrons. Receive, verify, and record patrons’ wagers. Scan and process winning tickets presented by patrons and pay out winnings for those wagers.
Gambling Cage Workers 43-3041 In a gambling establishment, conduct financial transactions for patrons. Accept patron’s credit application and verify credit references to provide check-cashing authorization or to establish house credit accounts. May reconcile daily summaries of transactions to balance books. May sell gambling chips, tokens, or tickets to patrons, or to other workers for resale to patrons. May convert gambling chips, tokens, or tickets to currency upon patron’s request. May use a cash register or computer to record transaction.
Gambling Change Persons and Booth Cashiers 41-2012 Exchange coins, tokens, and chips for patrons’ money. May issue payoffs and obtain customer’s signature on receipt. May operate a booth in the slot machine area and furnish change persons with money bank at the start of the shift, or count and audit money in drawers. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
Gambling Dealers 39-3011 Operate table games. Stand or sit behind table and operate games of chance by dispensing the appropriate number of cards or blocks to players, or operating other gambling equipment. Distribute winnings or collect players’ money or chips. May compare the house’s hand against players’ hands.
Gambling Managers 11-9071 Plan, direct, or coordinate gambling operations in a casino. May formulate house rules.
Gambling Service Workers, All Other 39-3019 All gambling service workers not listed separately.
Gambling Surveillance Officers and Gambling Investigators 33-9031 Observe gambling operation for irregular activities such as cheating or theft by either employees or patrons. Investigate potential threats to gambling assets such as money, chips, and gambling equipment. Act as oversight and security agent for management and customers.
Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators 53-7071 Operate steam-, gas-, electric motor-, or internal combustion-engine driven compressors. Transmit, compress, or recover gases, such as butane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and natural gas.
Gas Plant Operators 51-8092 Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines.
General and Operations Managers 11-1021 Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations, overseeing multiple departments or locations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. Usually manage through subordinate supervisors. Excludes First-Line Supervisors.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
General Internal Medicine Physicians 29-1216 Diagnose and provide nonsurgical treatment for a wide range of diseases and injuries of internal organ systems. Provide care mainly for adults and adolescents, and are based primarily in an outpatient care setting. Excludes “Family Medicine Physicians” (29-1215) and “Pediatricians, General” (29-1221).
Genetic Counselors 29-9092 Assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. Provide information to other healthcare providers or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions. Advise individuals and families to support informed decisionmaking and coping methods for those at risk. May help conduct research related to genetic conditions or genetic counseling.
Geographers 19-3092 Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth’s surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena. Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.
Geography Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1064 Teach courses in geography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Geological Technicians, Except Hydrologic Technicians 19-4043 Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in laboratory, exploration, and production activities to obtain data indicating resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum. Analyze mud and drill cuttings. Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes.
Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers 19-2042 Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth’s internal composition, atmospheres, and oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.
Glaziers 47-2121 Install glass in windows, skylights, store fronts, and display cases, or on surfaces, such as building fronts, interior walls, ceilings, and tabletops.
Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products 45-2041 Grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition. Excludes “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011).
Graphic Designers 27-1024 Design or create graphics to meet specific commercial or promotional needs, such as packaging, displays, or logos. May use a variety of mediums to achieve artistic or decorative effects. Excludes “Web and Digital Interface Designers” (15-1255).
Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand 51-9022 Grind, sand, or polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a variety of metal, wood, stone, clay, plastic, or glass objects. Includes chippers, buffers, and finishers.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4033 Set up, operate, or tend grinding and related tools that remove excess material or burrs from surfaces, sharpen edges or corners, or buff, hone, or polish metal or plastic work pieces.
Grounds Maintenance Workers, All Other 37-3019 All grounds maintenance workers not listed separately.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists 39-5012 Provide beauty services, such as cutting, coloring, and styling hair, and massaging and treating scalp. May shampoo hair, apply makeup, dress wigs, remove hair, and provide nail and skincare services. Excludes “Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance” (39-5091), “Manicurists and Pedicurists” (39-5092), and “Skincare Specialists” (39-5094).
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers 47-4041 Identify, remove, pack, transport, or dispose of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead-based paint, waste oil, fuel, transmission fluid, radioactive materials, or contaminated soil. Specialized training and certification in hazardous materials handling or a confined entry permit are generally required. May operate earth-moving equipment or trucks.
Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors 17-2111 Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws. Includes industrial product safety engineers.
Health Education Specialists 21-1091 Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles. Use data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments. May link health systems, health providers, insurers, and patients to address individual and population health needs. May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs. Excludes “Community Health Workers” (21-1094).
Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars 29-9021 Apply knowledge of healthcare and information systems to assist in the design, development, and continued modification and analysis of computerized healthcare systems. Abstract, collect, and analyze treatment and followup information of patients. May educate staff and assist in problem solving to promote the implementation of the healthcare information system. May design, develop, test, and implement databases with complete history, diagnosis, treatment, and health status to help monitor diseases. Excludes “Medical Records Specialists” (29‐2072).
Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1071 Teach courses in health specialties, in fields such as dentistry, laboratory technology, medicine, pharmacy, public health, therapy, and veterinary medicine. Excludes “Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1042) and “Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1072) who teach medical science.
Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other 29-2099 All health technologists and technicians not listed separately.
Healthcare Diagnosing or Treating Practitioners, All Other 29-1299 All healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners not listed separately.
Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other 29-9099 All healthcare practitioners and technical workers not listed separately.
Healthcare Social Workers 21-1022 Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses. Services include advising family caregivers. Provide patients with information and counseling, and make referrals for other services. May also provide case and care management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Healthcare Support Workers, All Other 31-9099 All healthcare support workers not listed separately.
Hearing Aid Specialists 29-2092 Select and fit hearing aids for customers. Administer and interpret tests of hearing. Assess hearing instrument efficacy. Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds. Excludes “Audiologists” (29-1181).
Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4191 Set up, operate, or tend heating equipment, such as heat-treating furnaces, flame-hardening machines, induction machines, soaking pits, or vacuum equipment to temper, harden, anneal, or heat treat metal or plastic objects.
Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers 49-9021 Install or repair heating, central air conditioning, HVAC, or refrigeration systems, including oil burners, hot-air furnaces, and heating stoves.
Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers 53-3032 Drive a tractor-trailer combination or a truck with a capacity of at least 26,001 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). May be required to unload truck. Requires commercial drivers’ license. Includes tow truck drivers. Excludes “Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors” (53-7081).
Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other 47-3019 All construction trades helpers not listed separately.
Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters 47-3011 Help brickmasons, blockmasons, stonemasons, or tile and marble setters by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons or tile and marble setters are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
Helpers--Carpenters 47-3012 Help carpenters by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist carpenters are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
Helpers--Electricians 47-3013 Help electricians by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist electricians are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
Helpers--Extraction Workers 47-5081 Help extraction craft workers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work area. Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 49-9098 Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers in maintenance, parts replacement, and repair of vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment. Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers; cleaning work area, machines, and tools; and holding materials or tools for other workers.
Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons 47-3014 Help painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters 47-3015 Help plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
Helpers--Production Workers 51-9198 Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Apprentice workers are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000).
Helpers--Roofers 47-3016 Help roofers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying, or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist roofers are classified under “Construction Laborers” (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
Highway Maintenance Workers 47-4051 Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way. Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement and repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences. May also mow or clear brush from along road, or plow snow from roadway. Excludes “Tree Trimmers and Pruners” (37-3013).
Historians 19-3093 Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters.
History Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1125 Teach courses in human history and historiography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Hoist and Winch Operators 53-7041 Operate or tend hoists or winches to lift and pull loads using power-operated cable equipment. Excludes “Crane and Tower Operators” (53-7021).
Home Appliance Repairers 49-9031 Repair, adjust, or install all types of electric or gas household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, dryers, and ovens.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Home Health Aides 31-1121 Monitor the health status of an individual with disabilities or illness, and address their health-related needs, such as changing bandages, dressing wounds, or administering medication. Work is performed under the direction of offsite or intermittent onsite licensed nursing staff. Provide assistance with routine healthcare tasks or activities of daily living, such as feeding, bathing, toileting, or ambulation. May also help with tasks such as preparing meals, doing light housekeeping, and doing laundry depending on the patient’s abilities.
Home Health and Personal Care Aides (SOC broad occupation consisting of 31-1121 and 31-1122) 31-1120 Monitor the health status of an individual with disabilities or illness and address their routine health-related and personal care needs, such as changing bandages, dressing wounds, or administering medication; or providing personalized assistance with routine personal care and activities of daily living support (e.g. feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and ambulation). Work may be preformed under the direction of offsite or intermittent onsite licensed nursing staff; or in various settings depending on the needs of the care recipient and may include locations such as their home, place of work, outin the community, or at a daytime nonresidential facility. May also help with tasks such as preparing meals, doing light hoursekeeping, and doing laundry.
Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop 35-9031 Welcome patrons, seat them at tables or in lounge, and help ensure quality of facilities and service.
Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks 43-4081 Accommodate hotel, motel, and resort patrons by registering and assigning rooms to guests, issuing room keys or cards, transmitting and receiving messages, keeping records of occupied rooms and guests’ accounts, making and confirming reservations, and presenting statements to and collecting payments from departing guests.
Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping 43-4161 Compile and keep personnel records. Record data for each employee, such as address, weekly earnings, absences, amount of sales or production, supervisory reports, and date of and reason for termination. May prepare reports for employment records, file employment records, or search employee files and furnish information to authorized persons.
Human Resources Managers 11-3121 Plan, direct, or coordinate human resources activities and staff of an organization. Excludes managers who primarily focus on compensation and benefits (11-3111) and training and development (11-3131).
Human Resources Specialists 13-1071 Recruit, screen, interview, or place individuals within an organization. May perform other activities in multiple human resources areas. Excludes “Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists” (13-1141) and “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151).
Hydrologic Technicians 19-4044 Collect and organize data concerning the distribution and circulation of ground and surface water, and data on its physical, chemical, and biological properties. Measure and report on flow rates and ground water levels, maintain field equipment, collect water samples, install and collect sampling equipment, and process samples for shipment to testing laboratories. May collect data on behalf of hydrologists, engineers, developers, government agencies, or agriculture. Excludes “Hydrologists” (19-2043).
Hydrologists 19-2043 Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation and its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and return to the ocean and atmosphere.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Industrial Engineering Technologists and Technicians 17-3026 Apply engineering theory and principles to problems of industrial layout or manufacturing production, usually under the direction of engineering staff. May perform time and motion studies on worker operations in a variety of industries for purposes such as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency.
Industrial Engineers 17-2112 Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination. Excludes “Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors” (17-2111).
Industrial Machinery Mechanics 49-9041 Repair, install, adjust, or maintain industrial production and processing machinery or refinery and pipeline distribution systems. May also install, dismantle, or move machinery and heavy equipment according to plans. Excludes “Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines” (49-3042), and “Maintenance Workers, Machinery” (49-9043).
Industrial Production Managers 11-3051 Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing products in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications.
Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators 53-7051 Operate industrial trucks or tractors equipped to move materials around a warehouse, storage yard, factory, construction site, or similar location. Excludes “Logging Equipment Operators” (45-4022).
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists 19-3032 Apply principles of psychology to human resources, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems. Activities may include policy planning; employee testing and selection, training, and development; and organizational development and analysis. May work with management to organize the work setting to improve worker productivity.
Information and Record Clerks, All Other 43-4199 All information and record clerks not listed separately.
Information Security Analysts 15-1212 Plan, implement, upgrade, or monitor security measures for the protection of computer networks and information. Assess system vulnerabilities for security risks and propose and implement risk mitigation strategies. May ensure appropriate security controls are in place that will safeguard digital files and vital electronic infrastructure. May respond to computer security breaches and viruses. Excludes “Computer Network Architects” (15-1241).
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers 51-9061 Inspect, test, sort, sample, or weigh nonagricultural raw materials or processed, machined, fabricated, or assembled parts or products for defects, wear, and deviations from specifications. May use precision measuring instruments and complex test equipment.
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other 49-9099 All installation, maintenance, and repair workers not listed separately.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Instructional Coordinators 25-9031 Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology into instruction in order to provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses. May train and coach teachers. Includes educational consultants and specialists, and instructional material directors.
Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall 47-2131 Line and cover structures with insulating materials. May work with batt, roll, or blown insulation materials.
Insulation Workers, Mechanical 47-2132 Apply insulating materials to pipes or ductwork, or other mechanical systems in order to help control and maintain temperature.
Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage 13-1032 Appraise automobile or other vehicle damage to determine repair costs for insurance claim settlement. Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost or cost estimates and recommendations. May seek agreement with automotive repair shop on repair costs.
Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks 43-9041 Process new insurance policies, modifications to existing policies, and claims forms. Obtain information from policyholders to verify the accuracy and completeness of information on claims forms, applications and related documents, and company records. Update existing policies and company records to reflect changes requested by policyholders and insurance company representatives. Excludes “Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators” (13-1031).
Insurance Sales Agents 41-3021 Sell life, property, casualty, health, automotive, or other types of insurance. May refer clients to independent brokers, work as an independent broker, or be employed by an insurance company.
Insurance Underwriters 13-2053 Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.
Interior Designers 27-1025 Plan, design, and furnish the internal space of rooms or buildings. Design interior environments or create physical layouts that are practical, aesthetic, and conducive to the intended purposes. May specialize in a particular field, style, or phase of interior design. Excludes “Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers” (27-1026).
Interpreters and Translators 27-3091 Interpret oral or sign language, or translate written text from one language into another.
Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan 43-4111 Interview persons by telephone, mail, in person, or by other means for the purpose of completing forms, applications, or questionnaires. Ask specific questions, record answers, and assist persons with completing form. May sort, classify, and file forms.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners 37-2011 Keep buildings in clean and orderly condition. Perform heavy cleaning duties, such as cleaning floors, shampooing rugs, washing walls and glass, and removing rubbish. Duties may include tending furnace and boiler, performing routine maintenance activities, notifying management of need for repairs, and cleaning snow or debris from sidewalk.
Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers 51-9071 Design, fabricate, adjust, repair, or appraise jewelry, gold, silver, other precious metals, or gems. Includes diamond polishers and gem cutters, and persons who perform precision casting and modeling of molds, casting metal in molds, or setting precious and semiprecious stones for jewelry and related products.
Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates 23-1023 Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law. May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. May perform wedding ceremonies.
Judicial Law Clerks 23-1012 Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents. Excludes “Lawyers” (23-1011) and “Paralegals and Legal Assistants” (23-2011).
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education 25-2012 Teach academic and social skills to kindergarten students. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Labor Relations Specialists 13-1075 Resolve disputes between workers and managers, negotiate collective bargaining agreements, or coordinate grievance procedures to handle employee complaints. Excludes equal employment opportunity (EEO) officers, who are included in “Compliance Officers” (13-1041).
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand 53-7062 Manually move freight, stock, luggage, or other materials, or perform other general labor. Includes all manual laborers not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Construction Laborers” (47-2061) and “Helpers, Construction Trades” (47-3011 through 47-3019). Excludes “Material Moving Workers” (53-7011 through 53-7199) who use power equipment.
Landscape Architects 17-1012 Plan and design land areas for projects such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites.
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers 37-3011 Landscape or maintain grounds of property using hand or power tools or equipment. Workers typically perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, mowing, trimming, planting, watering, fertilizing, digging, raking, sprinkler installation, and installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units. Excludes “Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse” (45-2092).
Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4034 Set up, operate, or tend lathe and turning machines to turn, bore, thread, form, or face metal or plastic materials, such as wire, rod, or bar stock.
Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers 51-6011 Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean industrial or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, linens, rugs, and carpets. Includes spotters and dyers of these articles.
Law Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1112 Teach courses in law. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Lawyers 23-1011 Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions. May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law.
Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic 51-4192 Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal or plastic stock or workpieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing. Includes shipfitters.
Legal Secretaries and Administrative Assistants 43-6012 Perform secretarial duties using legal terminology, procedures, and documents. Prepare legal papers and correspondence, such as summonses, complaints, motions, and subpoenas. May also assist with legal research.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Legal Support Workers, All Other 23-2099 All legal support workers not listed separately.
Legislators 11-1031 Develop, introduce, or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, state, or federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions.
Librarians and Media Collections Specialists 25-4022 Administer and maintain libraries or collections of information, for public or private access through reference or borrowing. Work in a variety of settings, such as educational institutions, museums, and corporations, and with various types of informational materials, such as books, periodicals, recordings, films, and databases. Tasks may include acquiring, cataloging, and circulating library materials, and user services such as locating and organizing information, providing instruction on how to access information, and setting up and operating a library’s media equipment.
Library Assistants, Clerical 43-4121 Compile records, and sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides and microfilm. Locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title. Register patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials. Excludes “Library Technicians” (25-4031).
Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1082 Teach courses in library science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Library Technicians 25-4031 Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process. Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files. Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.
Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses 29-2061 Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions. May work under the supervision of a registered nurse. Licensing required.
Life Scientists, All Other 19-1099 All life scientists not listed separately.
Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other 19-4099 All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately.
Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers 33-9092 Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes, to provide assistance and protection to participants.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Light Truck Drivers 53-3033 Drive a light vehicle, such as a truck or van, with a capacity of less than 26,001 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), primarily to pick up merchandise or packages from a distribution center and deliver. May load and unload vehicle. Excludes “Couriers and Messengers” (43-5021) and “Driver/Sales Workers” (53-3031).
Lighting Technicians 27-4015 Set up, maintain, and dismantle light fixtures, lighting control devices, and the associated lighting electrical and rigging equipment used for photography, television, film, video, and live productions. May focus or operate light fixtures, or attach color filters or other lighting accessories. Excludes “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011).
Loading and Moving Machine Operators, Underground Mining 47-5044 Operate underground loading or moving machine to load or move core, ore, or rock using shuttle or mine car or conveyors. Equipment may include power shovels, hoisting engines equipped with cable-drawn scraper or scoop, or machines equipped with gathering arms and conveyor.
Loan Interviewers and Clerks 43-4131 Interview loan applicants to elicit information; investigate applicants’ backgrounds and verify references; prepare loan request papers; and forward findings, reports, and documents to appraisal department. Review loan papers to ensure completeness, and complete transactions between loan establishment, borrowers, and sellers upon approval of loan.
Loan Officers 13-2072 Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods. Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, loan underwriters, and payday loan officers.
Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants 39-3093 Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms.
Locksmiths and Safe Repairers 49-9094 Repair and open locks, make keys, change locks and safe combinations, and install and repair safes.
Locomotive Engineers 53-4011 Drive electric, diesel-electric, steam, or gas-turbine-electric locomotives to transport passengers or freight. Interpret train orders, electronic or manual signals, and railroad rules and regulations. Excludes “Engineers” (17-2011 through 17-2199).
Lodging Managers 11-9081 Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that provides lodging and other accommodations. Excludes “Food Service Managers” (11-9051) in lodging establishments.
Log Graders and Scalers 45-4023 Grade logs or estimate the marketable content or value of logs or pulpwood in sorting yards, millpond, log deck, or similar locations. Inspect logs for defects or measure logs to determine volume. Excludes “Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products” (13-1021).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Logging Equipment Operators 45-4022 Drive logging tractor or wheeled vehicle equipped with one or more accessories, such as bulldozer blade, frontal shear, grapple, logging arch, cable winches, hoisting rack, or crane boom, to fell tree; to skid, load, unload, or stack logs; or to pull stumps or clear brush. Includes operating stand-alone logging machines, such as log chippers. Logging truck drivers are included in “Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers” (53-3032).
Logging Workers, All Other 45-4029 All logging workers not listed separately.
Logisticians 13-1081 Analyze and coordinate the ongoing logistical functions of a firm or organization. Responsible for the entire life cycle of a product, including acquisition, distribution, internal allocation, delivery, and final disposal of resources. Excludes “Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers” (11-3071) and “Project Management Specialists” (13-1082).
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Machine Feeders and Offbearers 53-7063 Feed materials into or remove materials from machines or equipment that is automatic or tended by other workers.
Machinists 51-4041 Set up and operate a variety of machine tools to produce precision parts and instruments out of metal. Includes precision instrument makers who fabricate, modify, or repair mechanical instruments. May also fabricate and modify parts to make or repair machine tools or maintain industrial machines, applying knowledge of mechanics, mathematics, metal properties, layout, and machining procedures. Machinists who primarily program or operate computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment are classified in “Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators and Programmers” (51-9160).
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists 29-2035 Operate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners. Monitor patient safety and comfort, and view images of area being scanned to ensure quality of pictures. May administer gadolinium contrast dosage intravenously. May interview patient, explain MRI procedures, and position patient on examining table. May enter into the computer data such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry.
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners 37-2012 Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.
Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service 43-9051 Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Time-stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail; and address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages. Duties may also include keeping necessary records and completed forms.
Maintenance and Repair Workers, General 49-9071 Perform work involving the skills of two or more maintenance or craft occupations to keep machines, mechanical equipment, or the structure of a building in repair. Duties may involve pipe fitting; HVAC maintenance; insulating; welding; machining; carpentry; repairing electrical or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning, and balancing new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, or stairs. Excludes “Facilities Managers” (11-3013) and “Maintenance Workers, Machinery” (49-9043).
Maintenance Workers, Machinery 49-9043 Lubricate machinery, change parts, or perform other routine machinery maintenance. Excludes “Maintenance and Repair Workers, General” (49-9071).
Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance 39-5091 Apply makeup to performers to reflect period, setting, and situation of their role.
Management Analysts 13-1111 Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively. Includes program analysts and management consultants. Excludes “Computer Systems Analysts” (15-1211) and “Operations Research Analysts” (15-2031).
Managers, All Other 11-9199 All managers not listed separately.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Manicurists and Pedicurists 39-5092 Clean and shape customers’ fingernails and toenails. May polish or decorate nails.
Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers 49-9095 Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings.
Marine Engineers and Naval Architects 17-2121 Design, develop, and evaluate the operation of marine vessels, ship machinery, and related equipment, such as power supply and propulsion systems.
Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists 13-1161 Research conditions in local, regional, national, or online markets. Gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or plan a marketing or advertising campaign. May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. May employ search marketing tactics, analyze web metrics, and develop recommendations to increase search engine ranking and visibility to target markets. Excludes “Web and Digital Interface Designers” (15-1255), “Art Directors” (27-1011), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), and “Public Relations Specialists” (27-3031).
Marketing Managers 11-2021 Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers. Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm’s profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm’s customers are satisfied. Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.
Marriage and Family Therapists 21-1013 Diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems. Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories and techniques in the delivery of services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders. Excludes “Psychologists” (19-3031 through 19-3039) and “Social Workers” (21-1020).
Massage Therapists 31-9011 Perform therapeutic massages of soft tissues and joints. May assist in the assessment of range of motion and muscle strength, or propose client therapy plans.
Material Moving Workers, All Other 53-7199 All material moving workers not listed separately.
Materials Engineers 17-2131 Evaluate materials and develop machinery and processes to manufacture materials for use in products that must meet specialized design and performance specifications. Develop new uses for known materials. Includes those engineers working with composite materials or specializing in one type of material, such as graphite, metal and metal alloys, ceramics and glass, plastics and polymers, and naturally occurring materials. Includes metallurgists and metallurgical engineers, ceramic engineers, and welding engineers.
Materials Scientists 19-2032 Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass. Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Mathematical Science Occupations, All Other 15-2099 All mathematical scientists not listed separately.
Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1022 Teach courses pertaining to mathematical concepts, statistics, and actuarial science and to the application of original and standardized mathematical techniques in solving specific problems and situations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Mathematicians 15-2021 Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.
Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers 51-3022 Use hands or hand tools to perform routine cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, and seafood.
Mechanical Door Repairers 49-9011 Install, service, or repair automatic door mechanisms and hydraulic doors. Includes garage door mechanics.
Mechanical Drafters 17-3013 Prepare detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information.
Mechanical Engineering Technologists and Technicians 17-3027 Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to modify, develop, test, or adjust machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
Mechanical Engineers 17-2141 Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.
Mechanical Engineers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2143 Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems. Illustrative examples: Combustion Engineers, Engine Designers, Heathing and Cooling Systems Engineers, Tool and Die Engineers.
Mechanical Engineers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 17-2144 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Mechanical Engineers.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Media and Communication Equipment Workers, All Other 27-4099 All media and communication equipment workers not listed separately.
Media and Communication Workers, All Other 27-3099 All media and communication workers not listed separately.
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians (Optional - estimates rolled up to 29-2010) 29-2012 Perform routine medical laboratory tests for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. May work under the supervision of a medical technologist.
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists (Optional - estimates rolled up to 29-2010) 29-2011 Perform complex medical laboratory tests for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. May train or supervise staff.
Medical and Health Services Managers 11-9111 Plan, direct, or coordinate medical and health services in hospitals, clinics, managed care organizations, public health agencies, or similar organizations.
Medical Appliance Technicians 51-9082 Construct, maintain, or repair medical supportive devices such as braces, orthotics and prosthetic devices, joints, arch supports, and other surgical and medical appliances.
Medical Assistants 31-9092 Perform administrative and certain clinical duties under the direction of a physician. Administrative duties may include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes. Clinical duties may include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories, preparing patients for examination, drawing blood, and administering medications as directed by physician. Excludes “Physician Assistants” (29-1071).
Medical Dosimetrists 29-2036 Generate radiation treatment plans, develop radiation dose calculations, communicate and supervise the treatment plan implementation, and consult with members of radiation oncology team.
Medical Equipment Preparers 31-9093 Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.
Medical Equipment Repairers 49-9062 Test, adjust, or repair biomedical or electromedical equipment.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Medical Records Specialists 29-2072 Compile, process, and maintain medical records of hospital and clinic patients in a manner consistent with medical, administrative, ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements of the healthcare system. Classify medical and healthcare concepts, including diagnosis, procedures, medical services, and equipment, into the healthcare industry’s numerical coding system. Includes medical coders. Excludes “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021) and “File Clerks” (43-4071).
Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists 19-1042 Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research. Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in “Healthcare Diagnosing or Treating Practitioners” (29-1000).
Medical Secretaries and Administrative Assistants 43-6013 Perform secretarial duties using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures. Duties may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, and compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.
Medical Transcriptionists 31-9094 Transcribe medical reports recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices, covering office visits, emergency room visits, diagnostic imaging studies, operations, chart reviews, and final summaries. Transcribe dictated reports and translate abbreviations into fully understandable form. Edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature, or correction.
Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners 13-1121 Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.
Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers 21-1023 Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs. Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.
Mental Health Counselors (Optional estimates rolled up to 21-1018) 21-1014 Counsel and advise individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health, with an emphasis on prevention. May help individuals deal with a broad range of mental health issues, such as those associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; or aging. Excludes “Psychologists” (19-3030), “Social Workers” (21-1020), and “Psychiatrists” (29-1223). Illustrative examples: Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor (LCMHC), Licensed Mental Heal Counselor (LMHC).
Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers 27-1026 Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.
Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, All Other 51-4199 All metal workers and plastic workers not listed separately.
Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders 51-4051 Operate or tend furnaces, such as gas, oil, coal, electric-arc or electric induction, open-hearth, or oxygen furnaces, to melt and refine metal before casting or to produce specified types of steel. Excludes “Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4191).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Meter Readers, Utilities 43-5041 Read meter and record consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam.
Microbiologists 19-1022 Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.
Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education 25-2022 Teach one or more subjects to students at the middle, intermediate, or junior high school level. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School” (25-2023), “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short Term” (25-3031).
Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4035 Set up, operate, or tend milling or planing machines to mill, plane, shape, groove, or profile metal or plastic work pieces.
Millwrights 49-9044 Install, dismantle, or move machinery and heavy equipment according to layout plans, blueprints, or other drawings.
Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers 17-2151 Conduct subsurface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites. May specify the ground support systems, processes, and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities. May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions. May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs. Excludes “Petroleum Engineers” (17-2171).
Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators (OEWS aggregation to broad occupation from SOC codes 51-2092 and 51-2099) (South Dakota titles this occupation Team Assemblers and Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators) 51-2090 Work as part of a team having responsibility for assembling an entire product or component of a product. Team assemblers can perform all tasks conducted by the team in the assembly process and rotate through all or most of them, rather than being assigned to a specific task on a permanent basis. May participate in making management decisions affecting the work. Includes team leaders who work as part of a team. Assemblers who continuously perform the same taks are classified elsewhere in 51-2000. Includes all assemblers not listed separately.
Miscellaneous Construction and Related Workers (OEWS aggregation to SOC broad occupation consisting of 47-4091 and 47-4099) 47-4090 Lay out, cut, and place segmental paving units. Includes all other construction and related workers not listed separately.
Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-9023 Set up, operate, or tend machines to mix or blend materials, such as chemicals, tobacco, liquids, color pigments, or explosive ingredients. Excludes “Food Batchmakers” (51-3092).
Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines 49-3042 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul mobile mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment, such as cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors, used in construction, logging, and mining. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031) and “Rail Car Repairers” (49-3043).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Model Makers, Metal and Plastic 51-4061 Set up and operate machines, such as lathes, milling and engraving machines, and jig borers to make working models of metal or plastic objects. Includes template makers.
Model Makers, Wood 51-7031 Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products. Includes wood jig builders and loft workers.
Models 41-9012 Model garments or other apparel and accessories for prospective buyers at fashion shows, private showings, or retail establishments. May pose for photos to be used in magazines or advertisements. May pose as subject for paintings, sculptures, and other types of artistic expression.
Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic 51-9195 Mold, shape, form, cast, or carve products such as food products, figurines, tile, pipes, and candles consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, stone, or combinations of materials.
Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4072 Set up, operate, or tend metal or plastic molding, casting, or coremaking machines to mold or cast metal or thermoplastic parts or products.
Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Arrangers 39-4031 Perform various tasks to arrange and direct individual funeral services, such as coordinating transportation of body to mortuary, interviewing family or other authorized person to arrange details, selecting pallbearers, aiding with the selection of officials for religious rites, and providing transportation for mourners. Excludes “Funeral Home Managers” (11-9171).
Motion Picture Projectionists 39-3021 Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment.
Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other 53-3099 All motor vehicle operators not listed separately.
Motorboat Mechanics and Service Technicians 49-3051 Repair and adjust electrical and mechanical equipment of inboard or inboard-outboard boat engines. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031).
Motorboat Operators 53-5022 Operate small motor-driven boats. May assist in navigational activities.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Motorcycle Mechanics 49-3052 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul motorcycles, scooters, mopeds, dirt bikes, or similar motorized vehicles.
Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4081 Set up, operate, or tend more than one type of cutting or forming machine tool or robot.
Museum Technicians and Conservators 25-4013 Restore, maintain, or prepare objects in museum collections for storage, research, or exhibit. May work with specimens such as fossils, skeletal parts, or botanicals; or artifacts, textiles, or art. May identify and record objects or install and arrange them in exhibits. Includes book or document conservators.
Music Directors and Composers 27-2041 Conduct, direct, plan, and lead instrumental or vocal performances by musical artists or groups, such as orchestras, bands, choirs, and glee clubs; or create original works of music.
Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners 49-9063 Repair percussion, stringed, reed, or wind instruments. May specialize in one area, such as piano tuning. Excludes “Audiovisual Equipment Installers and Repairers" (49-2097) who repair electrical and electronic musical instruments.
Musicians and Singers 27-2042 Play one or more musical instruments or sing. May perform on stage, for broadcasting, or for sound or video recording.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Natural Sciences Managers 11-9121 Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields. Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021) and “Architecture and Engineering Managers” (11-9041).
Network and Computer Systems Administrators 15-1244 Install, configure, and maintain an organization’s local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), data communications network, operating systems, and physical and virtual servers. Perform system monitoring and verify the integrity and availability of hardware, network, and server resources and systems. Review system and application logs and verify completion of scheduled jobs, including system backups. Analyze network and server resource consumption and control user access. Install and upgrade software and maintain software licenses. May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1212), “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1231), and “Computer User Support Specialists” (15-1232).
Neurologists 29-1217 Diagnose, manage, and treat disorders and diseases of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, with a primarily nonsurgical focus.
New Accounts Clerks 43-4141 Interview persons desiring to open accounts in financial institutions. Explain account services available to prospective customers and assist them in preparing applications.
News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists 27-3023 Narrate or write news stories, reviews, or commentary for print, broadcast, or other communications media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, or television. May collect and analyze information through interview, investigation, or observation.
Nuclear Engineers 17-2161 Conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal.
Nuclear Medicine Technologists 29-2033 Prepare, administer, and measure radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies using a variety of radioisotope equipment. Prepare stock solutions of radioactive materials and calculate doses to be administered by radiologists. Subject patients to radiation. Execute blood volume, red cell survival, and fat absorption studies following standard laboratory techniques.
Nuclear Power Reactor Operators 51-8011 Operate or control nuclear reactors. Move control rods, start and stop equipment, monitor and adjust controls, and record data in logs. Implement emergency procedures when needed. May respond to abnormalities, determine cause, and recommend corrective action.
Nuclear Technicians 19-4051 Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory, power generation, or electricity production activities. May operate, maintain, or provide quality control for nuclear testing and research equipment. May monitor radiation.
Nurse Anesthetists 29-1151 Administer anesthesia, monitor patient’s vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia. May assist anesthesiologists, surgeons, other physicians, or dentists. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Nurse Midwives 29-1161 Diagnose and coordinate all aspects of the birthing process, either independently or as part of a healthcare team. May provide well-woman gynecological care. Must have specialized, graduate nursing education.
Nurse Practitioners 29-1171 Diagnose and treat acute, episodic, or chronic illness, independently or as part of a healthcare team. May focus on health promotion and disease prevention. May order, perform, or interpret diagnostic tests such as lab work and x rays. May prescribe medication. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.
Nursing Assistants 31-1131 Provide or assist with basic care or support under the direction of onsite licensed nursing staff. Perform duties such as monitoring of health status, feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, or ambulation of patients in a health or nursing facility. May include medication administration and other health-related tasks. Includes nursing care attendants, nursing aides, and nursing attendants. Excludes “Home Health Aides” (31-1121), “Personal Care Aides” (31-1122), “Orderlies” (31-1132), and “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1133).
Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1072 Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Obstetricians and Gynecologists 29-1218 Provide medical care related to pregnancy or childbirth. Diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases of women, particularly those affecting the reproductive system. May also provide general care to women. May perform both medical and gynecological surgery functions.
Occupational Health and Safety Specialists 19-5011 Review, evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors. May conduct inspections and enforce adherence to laws and regulations governing the health and safety of individuals. May be employed in the public or private sector.
Occupational Health and Safety Technicians 19-5012 Collect data on work environments for analysis by occupational health and safety specialists. Implement and conduct evaluation of programs designed to limit chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic risks to workers.
Occupational Therapists 29-1122 Assess, plan, and organize rehabilitative programs that help build or restore vocational, homemaking, and daily living skills, as well as general independence, to persons with disabilities or developmental delays. Use therapeutic techniques, adapt the individual’s environment, teach skills, and modify specific tasks that present barriers to the individual. Excludes “Rehabilitation Counselors” (21-1015).
Occupational Therapy Aides 31-2012 Under close supervision of an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations. These duties include preparing patient and treatment room.
Occupational Therapy Assistants 31-2011 Assist occupational therapists in providing occupational therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with state laws, assist in development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, direct activity programs, and document the progress of treatments. Generally requires formal training.
Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other 43-9199 All office and administrative support workers not listed separately.
Office Clerks, General 43-9061 Perform duties too varied and diverse to be classified in any specific office clerical occupation, requiring knowledge of office systems and procedures. Clerical duties may be assigned in accordance with the office procedures of individual establishments and may include a combination of answering telephones, bookkeeping, typing or word processing, office machine operation, and filing.
Office Machine Operators, Except Computer 43-9071 Operate one or more of a variety of office machines, such as photocopying, photographic, and duplicating machines, or other office machines. Excludes “Billing and Posting Clerks” (43-3021) and “Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service” (43-9051).
Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators 47-2073 Operate one or several types of power construction equipment, such as motor graders, bulldozers, scrapers, compressors, pumps, derricks, shovels, tractors, or front-end loaders to excavate, move, and grade earth, erect structures, or pour concrete or other hard surface pavement. May repair and maintain equipment in addition to other duties. Excludes “Extraction Workers” (47-5000) and “Crane and Tower Operators” (53-7021).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Operations Research Analysts 15-2031 Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decisionmaking, policy formulation, or other managerial functions. May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, services, or products. May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation.
Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians 51-9083 Cut, grind, and polish eyeglasses, contact lenses, or other precision optical elements. Assemble and mount lenses into frames or process other optical elements. Includes precision lens polishers or grinders, centerer-edgers, and lens mounters. Excludes “Opticians, Dispensing ” (29-2081).
Ophthalmic Medical Technicians 29-2057 Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions. May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses.
Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric 29-1241 Diagnose and perform surgery to treat and help prevent disorders and diseases of the eye. May also provide vision services for treatment including glasses and contacts. Excludes “Optometrists” (29-1041) and “Pediatric Surgeons” (29-1243).
Opticians, Dispensing 29-2081 Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification. Assist client with inserting, removing, and caring for contact lenses. Assist client with selecting frames. Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription. Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames. Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles. Adjust frame and lens position to fit client. May shape or reshape frames. Includes contact lens opticians.
Optometrists 29-1041 Diagnose, manage, and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system. Examine eyes and visual system, diagnose problems or impairments, prescribe corrective lenses, and provide treatment. May prescribe therapeutic drugs to treat specific eye conditions. Ophthalmologists are included in “Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric” (29-1241).
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 29-1022 Perform surgery and related procedures on the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions to treat diseases, injuries, or defects. May diagnose problems of the oral and maxillofacial regions. May perform surgery to improve function or appearance.
Order Clerks 43-4151 Receive and process incoming orders for materials, merchandise, classified ads, or services such as repairs, installations, or rental of facilities. Generally receives orders via mail, phone, fax, or other electronic means. Duties include informing customers of receipt, prices, shipping dates, and delays; preparing contracts; and handling complaints. Excludes “Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance” (43-5032) who both dispatch and take orders for services.
Orderlies 31-1132 Transport patients to areas such as operating rooms or x-ray rooms using wheelchairs, stretchers, or moveable beds. May maintain stocks of supplies or clean and transport equipment. Excludes “Nursing Assistants” (31-1131). Psychiatric orderlies are included in “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1133).
Orthodontists 29-1023 Examine, diagnose, and treat dental malocclusions and oral cavity anomalies. Design and fabricate appliances to realign teeth and jaws to produce and maintain normal function and to improve appearance.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Orthopedic Surgeons, Except Pediatric 29-1242 Diagnose and perform surgery to treat and prevent rheumatic and other diseases in the musculoskeletal system. Excludes “Pediatric Surgeons” (29-1243).
Orthotists and Prosthetists 29-2091 Design, measure, fit, and adapt orthopedic braces, appliances or prostheses, such as limbs or facial parts for patients with disabling conditions.
Outdoor Power Equipment and Other Small Engine Mechanics 49-3053 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul small engines used to power lawn mowers, chain saws, recreational sporting equipment, and related equipment.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders 51-9111 Operate or tend machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment. Includes cannery workers who pack food products.
Packers and Packagers, Hand 53-7064 Pack or package by hand a wide variety of products and materials.
Painters, Construction and Maintenance 47-2141 Paint walls, equipment, buildings, bridges, and other structural surfaces, using brushes, rollers, and spray guns. May remove old paint to prepare surface prior to painting. May mix colors or oils to obtain desired color or consistency. Excludes “Paperhangers” (47-2142).
Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers 51-9123 Paint, coat, or decorate articles, such as furniture, glass, plateware, pottery, jewelry, toys, books, or leather. Excludes “Artists and Related Workers" (27-1010), “Designers” (27-1020), “Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators” (51-9151), and “Etchers and Engravers” (51-9194).
Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-9196 Set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products.
Paperhangers 47-2142 Cover interior walls or ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards. May remove old materials or prepare surfaces to be papered.
Paralegals and Legal Assistants 23-2011 Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent. Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action. Excludes “Legal Secretaries and Administrative Assistants” (43-6012).
Paramedics 29-2043 Administer basic or advanced emergency medical care and assess injuries and illnesses. May administer medication intravenously, use equipment such as EKGs, or administer advanced life support to sick or injured individuals. Excludes “Emergency Medical Technicians” (29-2042) and “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011).
Parking Attendants 53-6021 Park vehicles or issue tickets for customers in a parking lot or garage. May park or tend vehicles in environments such as a car dealership or rental car facility. May collect fee.
Parking Enforcement Workers 33-3041 Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Parts Salespersons 41-2022 Sell spare and replacement parts and equipment in repair shop or parts store.
Passenger Attendants 53-6061 Provide services to ensure the safety of passengers aboard ships, buses, trains, or within the station or terminal. Perform duties such as explaining the use of safety equipment, serving meals or beverages, or answering questions related to travel. Excludes “Baggage Porters and Bellhops” (39-6011) and “Flight Attendants” (53-2031).
Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic 51-4062 Lay out, machine, fit, and assemble castings and parts to metal or plastic foundry patterns, core boxes, or match plates.
Patternmakers, Wood 51-7032 Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings.
Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators 47-2071 Operate equipment used for applying concrete, asphalt, or other materials to road beds, parking lots, or airport runways and taxiways or for tamping gravel, dirt, or other materials. Includes concrete and asphalt paving machine operators, form tampers, tamping machine operators, and stone spreader operators.
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks 43-3051 Compile and record employee time and payroll data. May compute employees’ time worked, production, and commission. May compute and post wages and deductions, or prepare paychecks. Excludes “Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks” (43-3031).
Pediatric Surgeons 29-1243 Diagnose and perform surgery to treat fetal abnormalities and birth defects, diseases, and injuries in fetuses, premature and newborn infants, children, and adolescents. Includes all pediatric surgical specialties and subspecialties. Excludes “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons” (29-1022), “Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric” (29-1241), and “Orthopedic Surgeons, Except Pediatric” (29-1242).
Pediatricians, General 29-1221 Diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases and injuries in children. May refer patients to specialists for further diagnosis or treatment, as needed. Excludes “Family Medicine Physicians” (29-1215) and “General Internal Medicine Physicians” (29-1216).
Personal Care Aides 31-1122 Provide personalized assistance to individuals with disabilities or illness who require help with personal care and activities of daily living support (e.g., feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and ambulation). May also provide help with tasks such as preparing meals, doing light housekeeping, and doing laundry. Work is performed in various settings depending on the needs of the care recipient and may include locations such as their home, place of work, out in the community, or at a daytime nonresidential facility.
Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other 39-9099 All personal care and service workers not listed separately.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Personal Financial Advisors 13-2052 Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate. Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives. May also buy and sell financial assets for clients. Excludes “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031).
Personal Service Managers, All Other 11-9179 All personal service managers not listed separately. Excludes “Financial Specialists” (13-2000). Daycare Managers are included in Education and Childcare Administrators, Preschool and Daycare (11-9031).
Pest Control Workers 37-2021 Apply or release chemical solutions or toxic gases and set traps to kill or remove pests and vermin that infest buildings and surrounding areas.
Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation 37-3012 Mix or apply pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, or insecticides through sprays, dusts, vapors, soil incorporation, or chemical application on trees, shrubs, lawns, or crops. Usually requires specific training and state or federal certification. Crop dusters are included in “Commercial Pilots” (53-2012).
Petroleum Engineers 17-2171 Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice.
Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers 51-8093 Operate or control petroleum refining or processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines.
Pharmacists 29-1051 Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use. May advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosage, interactions, and side effects of medications.
Pharmacy Aides 31-9095 Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs. May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.
Pharmacy Technicians 29-2052 Prepare medications under the direction of a pharmacist. May measure, mix, count out, label, and record amounts and dosages of medications according to prescription orders.
Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1126 Teach courses in philosophy, religion, and theology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Phlebotomists 31-9097 Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research. May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions.
Photographers 27-4021 Photograph people, landscapes, merchandise, or other subjects. May use lighting equipment to enhance a subject’s appearance. May use editing software to produce finished images and prints. Includes commercial and industrial photographers, scientific photographers, and photojournalists. Excludes “Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Film” (27-4031).
Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators 51-9151 Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media. May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints.
Physical Scientists, All Other 19-2099 All physical scientists not listed separately.
Physical Therapist Aides 31-2022 Under close supervision of a physical therapist or physical therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations. These duties include preparing the patient and the treatment area.
Physical Therapist Assistants 31-2021 Assist physical therapists in providing physical therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with state laws, assist in the development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, document the progress of treatment, and modify specific treatments in accordance with patient status and within the scope of treatment plans established by a physical therapist. Generally requires formal training.
Physical Therapists 29-1123 Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and improve or correct disabling conditions resulting from disease or injury.
Physician Assistants 29-1071 Provide healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician. Conduct complete physicals, provide treatment, and counsel patients. May, in some cases, prescribe medication. Must graduate from an accredited educational program for physician assistants. Excludes “Registered Nurses” (29-1141), “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171), “Emergency Medical Technicians” (29-2042), “Paramedics” (29-2043), “Surgical Assistants” (29-9093), and “Medical Assistants” (31-9092).
Physicians, All Other 29-1229 All physicians not listed separately.
Physicians, Pathologists 29-1222 Diagnose diseases and conduct lab tests using organs, body tissues, and fluids. Includes medical examiners.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Physicists 19-2012 Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories. Excludes “Biochemists and Biophysicists” (19-1021).
Physics Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1054 Teach courses pertaining to the laws of matter and energy. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Pile Driver Operators 47-2072 Operate pile drivers mounted on skids, barges, crawler treads, or locomotive cranes to drive pilings for retaining walls, bulkheads, and foundations of structures such as buildings, bridges, and piers.
Pipelayers 47-2151 Lay pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, and water mains. Perform any combination of the following tasks: grade trenches or culverts, position pipe, or seal joints. Excludes “Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers” (51-4121).
Plant and System Operators, All Other 51-8099 All plant and system operators not listed separately.
Plasterers and Stucco Masons 47-2161 Apply interior or exterior plaster, cement, stucco, or similar materials. May also set ornamental plaster.
Plating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4193 Set up, operate, or tend plating machines to coat metal or plastic products with chromium, zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel, or other metal to protect or decorate surfaces. Typically, the product being coated is immersed in molten metal or an electrolytic solution. Excludes “Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9124).
Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters 47-2152 Assemble, install, alter, and repair pipelines or pipe systems that carry water, steam, air, or other liquids or gases. May install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems. Includes sprinkler fitters.
Podiatrists 29-1081 Diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the human foot.
Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers 33-3051 Maintain order and protect life and property by enforcing local, tribal, state, or federal laws and ordinances. Perform a combination of the following duties: patrol a specific area; direct traffic; issue traffic summonses; investigate accidents; apprehend and arrest suspects, or serve legal processes of courts. Includes police officers working at educational institutions.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1065 Teach courses in political science, international affairs, and international relations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Political Scientists 19-3094 Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. May study topics, such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideology. May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities. May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).
Postal Service Clerks 43-5051 Perform any combination of tasks in a United States Postal Service (USPS) post office, such as receive letters and parcels; sell postage and revenue stamps, postal cards, and stamped envelopes; fill out and sell money orders; place mail in pigeon holes of mail rack or in bags; and examine mail for correct postage. Includes postal service clerks employed by USPS contractors.
Postal Service Mail Carriers 43-5052 Sort and deliver mail for the United States Postal Service (USPS). Deliver mail on established route by vehicle or on foot. Includes postal service mail carriers employed by USPS contractors.
Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators 43-5053 Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution for the United States Postal Service (USPS). Examine, sort, and route mail. Load, operate, and occasionally adjust and repair mail processing, sorting, and canceling machinery. Keep records of shipments, pouches, and sacks, and perform other duties related to mail handling within the postal service. Includes postal service mail sorters and processors employed by USPS contractors. Excludes “Postal Service Clerks” (43-5051) and “Postal Service Mail Carriers” (43-5052).
Postmasters and Mail Superintendents 11-9131 Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and support services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.
Postsecondary Teachers, All Other 25-1199 All postsecondary teachers not listed separately.
Pourers and Casters, Metal 51-4052 Operate hand-controlled mechanisms to pour and regulate the flow of molten metal into molds to produce castings or ingots.
Power Distributors and Dispatchers 51-8012 Coordinate, regulate, or distribute electricity or steam.
Power Plant Operators 51-8013 Control, operate, or maintain machinery to generate electric power. Includes auxiliary equipment operators. Excludes “Nuclear Power Reactor Operators” (51-8011).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other 49-9069 All precision instrument and equipment repairers not listed separately.
Prepress Technicians and Workers 51-5111 Format and proof text and images submitted by designers and clients into finished pages that can be printed. Includes digital and photo typesetting. May produce printing plates.
Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education 25-2011 Instruct preschool-aged students, following curricula or lesson plans, in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031), and “Childcare Workers” (39-9011).
Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials 51-6021 Press or shape articles by hand or machine.
Print Binding and Finishing Workers 51-5113 Bind books and other publications or finish printed products by hand or machine. May set up binding and finishing machines.
Printing Press Operators 51-5112 Set up and operate digital, letterpress, lithographic, flexographic, gravure, or other printing machines. Includes short-run offset printing presses.
Private Detectives and Investigators 33-9021 Gather, analyze, compile, and report information regarding individuals or organizations to clients, or detect occurrences of unlawful acts or infractions of rules in private establishment.
Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists 21-1092 Provide social services to assist in rehabilitation of law offenders in custody or on probation or parole. Make recommendations for actions involving formulation of rehabilitation plan and treatment of offender, including conditional release and education and employment stipulations.
Procurement Clerks 43-3061 Compile information and records to draw up purchase orders for procurement of materials and services. Excludes “Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products” (13-1022).
Producers and Directors 27-2012 Produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or film productions for entertainment, information, or instruction. Responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of actors or guests, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Production Workers, All Other 51-9199 All production workers not listed separately. Excludes “Packers and Packagers, Hand” (53-7064).
Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks 43-5061 Coordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within or between departments of an establishment according to production schedule. Duties include reviewing and distributing production, work, and shipment schedules; conferring with department supervisors to determine progress of work and completion dates; and compiling reports on progress of work, inventory levels, costs, and production problems. Excludes “Project Management Specialists” (13-1082) and “Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping” (43-5111).
Project Management Specialists 13-1082 Analyze and coordinate the schedule, timeline, procurement, staffing, and budget of a product or service on a per project basis. Lead and guide the work of technical staff. May serve as a point of contact for the client or customer. Excludes “Management Occupations” (11-0000), “Logisticians” (13-1081), “Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners” (13-1121), and “Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks” (43-5061).
Proofreaders and Copy Markers 43-9081 Read transcript or proof type setup to detect and mark for correction any grammatical, typographical, or compositional errors. Excludes workers whose primary duty is editing copy. Includes proofreaders of braille.
Property Appraisers and Assessors (SOC broad occupation consisting of 13-2022 and 13-2023) 13-2020 Appraise and estimate the fair value of real estate, or tangible personal or business property, such as jewelry, art, antiques, collectibles, and equipment. May also appraise land or assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules. Excludes "Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Invesigators" (13-1031), "Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage" (13-1032), and Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents" (13-2081)
Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers 11-9141 Plan, direct, or coordinate the selling, buying, leasing, or governance activities of commercial, industrial, or residential real estate properties. Includes managers of homeowner and condominium associations, rented or leased housing units, buildings, or land (including rights-of-way).
Prosthodontists 29-1024 Diagnose, treat, rehabilitate, design, and fit prostheses that maintain oral function, health, and appearance for patients with clinical conditions associated with teeth, oral and maxillofacial tissues, or the jaw.
Protective Service Workers, All Other 33-9099 All protective service workers not listed separately.
Psychiatric Aides 31-1133 Assist mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed patients, working under direction of nursing and medical staff. May assist with daily living activities, lead patients in educational and recreational activities, or accompany patients to and from examinations and treatments. May restrain violent patients. Includes psychiatric orderlies.
Psychiatric Technicians 29-2053 Care for individuals with mental or emotional conditions or disabilities, following the instructions of physicians or other health practitioners. Monitor patients’ physical and emotional well-being and report to medical staff. May participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs, help with personal hygiene, and administer oral or injectable medications.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Psychiatrists 29-1223 Diagnose, treat, and help prevent mental disorders. Excludes “Clinical and Counseling Psychologists” (19-3033) and “School Psychologists” (19-3034).
Psychologists, All Other 19-3039 All psychologists not listed separately.
Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1066 Teach courses in psychology, such as child, clinical, and developmental psychology, and psychological counseling. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Public Relations Managers 11-2032 Plan, direct, or coordinate activities designed to create or maintain a favorable public image or raise issue awareness for their organization or client.
Public Relations Specialists 27-3031 Promote or create an intended public image for individuals, groups, or organizations. May write or select material for release to various communications media. May specialize in using social media.
Public Safety Telecommunicators 43-5031 Operate telephone, radio, or other communication systems to receive and communicate requests for emergency assistance at 9-1-1 public safety answering points and emergency operations centers. Take information from the public and other sources regarding crimes, threats, disturbances, acts of terrorism, fires, medical emergencies, and other public safety matters. May coordinate and provide information to law enforcement and emergency response personnel. May access sensitive databases and other information sources as needed. May provide additional instructions to callers based on knowledge of and certification in law enforcement, fire, or emergency medical procedures.
Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers 53-7072 Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes.
Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products 13-1023 Purchase machinery, equipment, tools, parts, supplies, or services necessary for the operation of an establishment. Purchase raw or semifinished materials for manufacturing. May negotiate contracts. Excludes “Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products” (13-1021) and “Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products” (13-1022).
Purchasing Managers 11-3061 Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of buyers, purchasing officers, and related workers involved in purchasing materials, products, and services. Includes wholesale or retail trade merchandising managers and procurement managers.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
No occupations begin with the letter "q."
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Radiation Therapists 29-1124 Provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiation oncologist according to established practices and standards. Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and maintaining records, reports, and files. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.
Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairers 49-2021 Repair, install, or maintain mobile or stationary radio transmitting, broadcasting, and receiving equipment, and two-way radio communications systems used in cellular telecommunications, mobile broadband, ship-to-shore, aircraft-to-ground communications, and radio equipment in service and emergency vehicles. May test and analyze network coverage.
Radiologic Technologists and Technicians 29-2034 Take x-rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient’s bloodstream for diagnostic or research purposes. Includes radiologic technologists and technicians who specialize in other scanning modalities. Excludes “Diagnostic Medical Sonographers” (29-2032) and “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists” (29-2035).
Radiologists 29-1224 Diagnose and treat diseases and injuries using medical imaging techniques, such as x rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, and ultrasounds. May perform minimally invasive medical procedures and tests.
Rail Car Repairers 49-3043 Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul railroad rolling stock, mine cars, or mass transit rail cars. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031).
Rail Transportation Workers, All Other 53-4099 All rail transportation workers not listed separately.
Rail Yard Engineers, Dinkey Operators, and Hostlers 53-4013 Drive switching or other locomotive or dinkey engines within railroad yard, industrial plant, quarry, construction project, or similar location.
Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators and Locomotive Firers 53-4022 Operate or monitor railroad track switches or locomotive instruments. May couple or uncouple rolling stock to make up or break up trains. Watch for and relay traffic signals. May inspect couplings, air hoses, journal boxes, and hand brakes. May watch for dragging equipment or obstacles on rights-of-way.
Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters 53-4031 Coordinate activities of switch-engine crew within railroad yard, industrial plant, or similar location. Conductors coordinate activities of train crew on passenger or freight trains. Yardmasters review train schedules and switching orders and coordinate activities of workers engaged in railroad traffic operations, such as the makeup or breakup of trains and yard switching.
Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators 47-4061 Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines. Includes ballast cleaning machine operators and railroad bed tamping machine operators.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Real Estate Brokers 41-9021 Operate real estate office, or work for commercial real estate firm, overseeing real estate transactions. Other duties usually include selling real estate or renting properties and arranging loans.
Real Estate Sales Agents 41-9022 Rent, buy, or sell property for clients. Perform duties such as study property listings, interview prospective clients, accompany clients to property site, discuss conditions of sale, and draw up real estate contracts. Includes agents who represent buyer.
Receptionists and Information Clerks 43-4171 Answer inquiries and provide information to the general public, customers, visitors, and other interested parties regarding activities conducted at establishment and location of departments, offices, and employees within the organization. Excludes “Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service” (43-2011).
Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1193 Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Recreation Workers 39-9032 Conduct recreation activities with groups in public, private, or volunteer agencies or recreation facilities. Organize and promote activities, such as arts and crafts, sports, games, music, dramatics, social recreation, camping, and hobbies, taking into account the needs and interests of individual members.
Recreational Therapists 29-1125 Plan, direct, or coordinate medically-approved recreation programs for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions. Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities, and crafts. May assess a patient condition and recommend appropriate recreational activity. Excludes “Recreation Workers” (39-9032).
Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians 49-3092 Diagnose, inspect, adjust, repair, or overhaul recreational vehicles including travel trailers. May specialize in maintaining gas, electrical, hydraulic, plumbing, or chassis/towing systems as well as repairing generators, appliances, and interior components. Includes workers who perform customized van conversions. Excludes “Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics” (49-3023) and “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031) who also work on recreation vehicles.
Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons 49-9045 Build or repair equipment such as furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits, and ovens, using refractory materials.
Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors 53-7081 Collect and dump refuse or recyclable materials from containers into truck. May drive truck.
Registered Nurses 29-1141 Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients. May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management. Licensing or registration required. Includes Clinical Nurse Specialists. Excludes “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), and “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Rehabilitation Counselors 21-1015 Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, aging, or the stress of daily life. Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities. Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement. Excludes “Occupational Therapists” (29-1122).
Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers 47-2171 Position and secure steel bars or mesh in concrete forms in order to reinforce concrete. Use a variety of fasteners, rod-bending machines, blowtorches, and hand tools. Includes rod busters.
Religious Workers, All Other 21-2099 All religious workers not listed separately.
Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks 43-4181 Make and confirm reservations for transportation or lodging, or sell transportation tickets. May check baggage and direct passengers to designated concourse, pier, or track; deliver tickets and contact individuals and groups to inform them of package tours; or provide tourists with travel or transportation information. Excludes "Cashiers” (41-2011), "Travel Agents” (41-3041), and "Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081) who sell tickets for local transportation.
Residential Advisors 39-9041 Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary school and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments. Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings. May maintain household records and assign rooms. May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources.
Respiratory Therapists 29-1126 Assess, treat, and care for patients with breathing disorders. Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.
Retail Salespersons 41-2031 Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
Riggers 49-9096 Set up or repair rigging for construction projects, manufacturing plants, logging yards, ships and shipyards, or for the entertainment industry.
Rock Splitters, Quarry 47-5051 Separate blocks of rough dimension stone from quarry mass using jackhammers, wedges, or chop saws.
Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 51-4023 Set up, operate, or tend machines to roll steel or plastic forming bends, beads, knurls, rolls, or plate, or to flatten, temper, or reduce gauge of material.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Roof Bolters, Mining 47-5043 Operate machinery to install roof support bolts in underground mine.
Roofers 47-2181 Cover roofs of structures with shingles, slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, or related materials. May spray roofs, sidings, and walls with material to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures.
Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas 47-5012 Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas” (47-5023).
Roustabouts, Oil and Gas 47-5071 Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as needed.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Sailors and Marine Oilers 53-5011 Stand watch to look for obstructions in path of vessel, measure water depth, turn wheel on bridge, or use emergency equipment as directed by captain, mate, or pilot. Break out, rig, overhaul, and store cargo-handling gear, stationary rigging, and running gear. Perform a variety of maintenance tasks to preserve the painted surface of the ship and to maintain line and ship equipment. Must hold government-issued certification and tankerman certification when working aboard liquid-carrying vessels. Includes able seamen and ordinary seamen.
Sales and Related Workers, All Other 41-9099 All sales and related workers not listed separately.
Sales Engineers 41-9031 Sell business goods or services, the selling of which requires a technical background equivalent to a baccalaureate degree in engineering. Excludes “Engineers” (17-2011 through 17-2199) whose primary function is not marketing or sales.
Sales Managers 11-2022 Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer. Coordinate sales distribution by establishing sales territories, quotas, and goals and establish training programs for sales representatives. Analyze sales statistics gathered by staff to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers.
Sales Representatives of Services, Except Advertising, Insurance, Financial Services, and Travel 41-3091 Sell services to individuals or businesses. May describe options or resolve client problems. Excludes “Advertising Sales Agents” (41-3011), “Insurance Sales Agents” (41-3021), “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031), “Travel Agents” (41-3041), “Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing” (41-4010), and “Telemarketers” (41-9041).
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products 41-4012 Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses or groups of individuals. Work requires substantial knowledge of items sold.
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products 41-4011 Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers where technical or scientific knowledge is required in such areas as biology, engineering, chemistry, and electronics, normally obtained from at least 2 years of postsecondary education. Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031).
Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood 51-7041 Set up, operate, or tend wood sawing machines. May operate computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment. Includes lead sawyers. Workers who primarily program or operate CNC equipment are classified in “Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators and Programmers” (51-9160).
School Bus Monitors 33-9094 Maintain order among students on a school bus. Duties include helping students safely board and exit and communicating behavioral problems. May perform pretrip and posttrip inspections and prepare for and assist in emergency evacuations.
School Psychologists 19-3034 Diagnose and implement individual or schoolwide interventions or strategies to address educational, behavioral, or developmental issues that adversely impact educational functioning in a school. May address student learning and behavioral problems and counsel students or families. May design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performance. May consult with other school-based personnel.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education 25-2031 Teach one or more subjects to students at the secondary school level. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School” (25-2032), “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive 43-6014 Perform routine administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers. Excludes legal, medical, and executive secretaries (43-6011 through 43-6013).
Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents 41-3031 Buy and sell securities or commodities in investment and trading firms, or provide financial services to businesses and individuals. May advise customers about stocks, bonds, mutual funds, commodities, and market conditions.
Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers 49-2098 Install, program, maintain, and repair security and fire alarm wiring and equipment. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. Excludes “Electricians” (47-2111) who do a broad range of electrical wiring.
Security Guards 33-9032 Guard, patrol, or monitor premises to prevent theft, violence, or infractions of rules. May operate x-ray and metal detector equipment. Excludes “Police Officers” (33-3050) and “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).
Segmental Pavers (Optional - estimates rolled up to 47-4090) 47-4091 Lay out, cut, and place segmental paving units. Includes installers of bedding and restraining materials for the paving units. Illustrative examples: Concrete Pavement Installer, Paving Stone Installer
Self-Enrichment Teachers 25-3021 Teach or instruct individuals or groups for the primary purpose of self-enrichment or recreation, rather than for an occupational objective, educational attainment, competition, or fitness. Excludes “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022) and “Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors” (39-9031). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
Semiconductor Processing Technicians 51-9141 Perform any or all of the following functions in the manufacture of electronic semiconductors: load semiconductor material into furnace; saw formed ingots into segments; load individual segment into crystal growing chamber and monitor controls; locate crystal axis in ingot using x-ray equipment and saw ingots into wafers; and clean, polish, and load wafers into series of special purpose furnaces, chemical baths, and equipment used to form circuitry and change conductive properties.
Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-9012 Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; condenser tubes; precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks; scrubbing towers; or batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators. Excludes “Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders” (51-9011).
Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners 47-4071 Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains. May patch walls and partitions of tank, replace damaged drain tile, or repair breaks in underground piping.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Service Unit Operators, Oil and Gas 47-5013 Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. Includes fishing-tool technicians.
Set and Exhibit Designers 27-1027 Design special exhibits and sets for film, video, television, and theater productions. May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.
Sewers, Hand 51-6051 Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items. Includes weavers and stitchers.
Sewing Machine Operators 51-6031 Operate or tend sewing machines to join, reinforce, decorate, or perform related sewing operations in the manufacture of garment or nongarment products.
Shampooers 39-5093 Shampoo and rinse customers’ hair.
Sheet Metal Workers 47-2211 Fabricate, assemble, install, and repair sheet metal products and equipment, such as ducts, control boxes, drainpipes, and furnace casings. Work may involve any of the following: setting up and operating fabricating machines to cut, bend, and straighten sheet metal; shaping metal over anvils, blocks, or forms using hammer; operating soldering and welding equipment to join sheet metal parts; or inspecting, assembling, and smoothing seams and joints of burred surfaces. Includes sheet metal duct installers who install prefabricated sheet metal ducts used for heating, air conditioning, or other purposes.
Ship Engineers 53-5031 Supervise and coordinate activities of crew engaged in operating and maintaining engines, boilers, deck machinery, and electrical, sanitary, and refrigeration equipment aboard ship. Excludes “Engineers” (17-2000).
Shipping, Receiving, and Inventory Clerks 43-5071 Verify and maintain records on incoming and outgoing shipments involving inventory. Duties include verifying and recording incoming merchandise or material and arranging for the transportation of products. May prepare items for shipment. Excludes “Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping” (43-5111), “Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, except Postal Service” (43-9051), and “Stockers and Order Fillers” (53-7065).
Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers 51-6041 Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles. May use hand tools.
Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders 51-6042 Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Shuttle Drivers and Chauffeurs 53-3053 Drive a motor vehicle to transport passengers on a planned or scheduled basis. May collect a fare. Includes nonemergency medical transporters and hearse drivers. Excludes “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011) and “Taxi Drivers” (53-3054).
Signal and Track Switch Repairers 49-9097 Install, inspect, test, maintain, or repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, or intercommunications systems within a railroad system.
Skincare Specialists 39-5094 Provide skincare treatments to face and body to enhance an individual’s appearance. Includes electrologists and laser hair removal specialists.
Slaughterers and Meat Packers 51-3023 Perform nonroutine or precision functions involving the preparation of large portions of meat. Work may include specialized slaughtering tasks, cutting standard or premium cuts of meat for marketing, making sausage, or wrapping meats. Work typically occurs in slaughtering, meat packing, or wholesale establishments. Excludes “Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers” (51-3022) who perform routine meat cutting.
Social and Community Service Managers 11-9151 Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of a social service program or community outreach organization. Oversee the program or organization’s budget and policies regarding participant involvement, program requirements, and benefits. Work may involve directing social workers, counselors, or probation officers.
Social and Human Service Assistants 21-1093 Assist other social and human service providers in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families. May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services. May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care. Excludes “Rehabilitation Counselors” (21-1015), “Psychiatric Technicians” (29-2053), “Personal Care Aides” (31-1122), and “Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs” (43-4061).
Social Science Research Assistants 19-4061 Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research. May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management. Excludes “Teaching Assistants, Postsecondary” (25-9044).
Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other 25-1069 All postsecondary social sciences teachers not listed separately.
Social Scientists and Related Workers, All Other 19-3099 All social scientists and related workers not listed separately.
Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1113 Teach courses in social work. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Social Workers, All Other 21-1029 All social workers not listed separately.
Sociologists 19-3041 Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.
Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1067 Teach courses in sociology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Software Developers 15-1252 Research, design, and develop computer and network software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Update software or enhance existing software capabilities. May work with computer hardware engineers to integrate hardware and software systems, and develop specifications and performance requirements. May maintain databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team.
Software Developers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1295 Research, design, and develop computer and network software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Update software or enhance existing software capabilities. May work with computer hardware engineers to integrate hardware and software systems, and develop specifications and performance requirements. May maintain databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team. Illustrative examples: Computer Applications Engineer, Computer Systems Engineer, Mobile Applications Developer, Software Applications Architect, Software Engineer, Systems Software Developer. 
Software Developers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1296 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Software Developers.
Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers 15-1253 Develop and execute software tests to identify software problems and their causes. Test system modifications to prepare for implementation. Document software and application defects using a bug tracking system and report defects to software or web developers. Create and maintain databases of known defects. May participate in software design reviews to provide input on functional requirements, operational characteristics, product designs, and schedules.
Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers, Non R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1297 Develop and execute software tests to identify software problems and their causes. Test system modifications to prepare for implementation. Document software and application defects using a bug tracking system and report defects to software or web developers. Create and maintain databases of known defects. May participate in software design reviews to provide input on functional requirements, operational characteristics, product designs, and schedules. Illustrative examples: Applications Tester, Software Quality Assurance Technician, Software Quality Control Specialist, Software Quality Engineer, Software Test Engineer.
Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers, R&D (use only in NAICS 6112 and 6113) 15-1298 These persons spend the majority of their time performing research and development activities relating to their work as Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers.
Soil and Plant Scientists 19-1013 Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Solar Photovoltaic Installers 47-2231 Assemble, install, or maintain solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on roofs or other structures in compliance with site assessment and schematics. May include measuring, cutting, assembling, and bolting structural framing and solar modules. May perform minor electrical work such as current checks. Excludes solar PV electricians who are included in “Electricians” (47-2111) and solar thermal installers who are included in “Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters” (47-2152).
Sound Engineering Technicians 27-4014 Assemble and operate equipment to record, synchronize, mix, edit, or reproduce sound, including music, voices, or sound effects, for theater, video, film, television, podcasts, sporting events, and other productions. Excludes “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011).
Special Education Teachers, All Other 25-2059 All special education teachers not listed separately.
Special Education Teachers, Elementary School  (Optional - estimates rolled up to 25-2052) 25-2056 Teach academic, social, and life skills to elementary school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten (Optional - estimates rolled up to 25-2052) 25-2055 Teach academic, social, and life skills to kindergarten students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School (OEWS-specific aggregation of SOC codes 25-2055 and 25-2056) 25-2052 Teach academic, social, and life skills to elementary and kindergarten students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blink or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes "Substitute Teachers, Short-Term" (25-3031).
Special Education Teachers, Middle School 25-2057 Teach academic, social, and life skills to middle school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Special Education Teachers, Preschool 25-2051 Teach academic, social, and life skills to preschool-aged students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Special Education Teachers, Secondary School 25-2058 Teach academic, social, and life skills to secondary school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
Special Effects Artists and Animators 27-1014 Create special effects or animations using film, video, computers, or other electronic tools and media for use in products, such as computer games, movies, music videos, and commercials.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Speech-Language Pathologists 29-1127 Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. May select alternative communication systems and teach their use. May perform research related to speech and language problems.
Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators 51-8021 Operate or maintain stationary engines, boilers, or other mechanical equipment to provide utilities for buildings or industrial processes. Operate equipment such as steam engines, generators, motors, turbines, and steam boilers.
Statistical Assistants 43-9111 Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies. May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for use by actuaries. Includes actuarial clerks.
Statisticians 15-2041 Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information. May specialize in fields such as biostatistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics. Includes mathematical and survey statisticians. Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).
Stockers and Order Fillers 53-7065 Receive, store, and issue merchandise, materials, equipment, and other items from stockroom, warehouse, or storage yard to fill shelves, racks, tables, or customers’ orders. May operate power equipment to fill orders. May mark prices on merchandise and set up sales displays. Excludes “Shipping, Receiving, and Inventory Clerks” (43-5071), “Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand” (53-7062), and “Packers and Packagers, Hand” (53-7064).
Stonemasons 47-2022 Build stone structures, such as piers, walls, and abutments. Lay walks, curbstones, or special types of masonry for vats, tanks, and floors.
Structural Iron and Steel Workers 47-2221 Raise, place, and unite iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or structural frameworks. May erect metal storage tanks and assemble prefabricated metal buildings. Excludes “Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers” (47-2171).
Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters 51-2041 Fabricate, position, align, and fit parts of structural metal products. Shipfitters are included in “Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic” (51-4192).
Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors (Optional estimates rolled up to 21-1018) 21-1011 Counsel and advise individuals with alcohol, tobacco, drug, or other problems, such as gambling and eating disorders. May counsel individuals, families, or groups or engage in prevention programs. Excludes “Psychologists” (19-3031 through 19-3039), “Mental Health Counselors” (21-1014), and “Social Workers” (21-1021 through 21-1029) providing these services. Illustrative examples: Addiction Counselor, Alcohol and Drug Counselor, Chemical Dependency Counselor.
Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder and Mental Health Counselors (OEWS-specific aggregation of SOC codes 21-1011 and 21-1014) 21-1018 Counsel and advise individuals, families, or groups with substance abluse problems, behavioral disorders, or a broad range of mental health issues in order to promote optimum mental and emotional health. Counsel with an emphasis on prevention. Excludes "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039), "Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029) "Psychiatrists" (29-1066) providing these services.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Substitute Teachers, Short-Term 25-3031 Teach students on a short-term basis as a temporary replacement for a regular classroom teacher, typically using the regular teacher’s lesson plan. Excludes long-term substitute teachers who perform all the duties of a regular teacher; these teachers are coded within the 25-1000 or 25-2000 minor groups.
Subway and Streetcar Operators 53-4041 Operate subway or elevated suburban trains with no separate locomotive, or electric-powered streetcar, to transport passengers. May handle fares.
Surgeons, All Other 29-1249 All surgeons not listed separately. Excludes “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons” (29-1022).
Surgical Assistants 29-9093 Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons. May, in accordance with state laws, help surgeons to make incisions and close surgical sites, manipulate or remove tissues, implant surgical devices or drains, suction the surgical site, place catheters, clamp or cauterize vessels or tissue, and apply dressings to surgical site. Excludes “Registered Nurses” (29-1141) and “Surgical Technologists” (29-2055).
Surgical Technologists 29-2055 Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel. May help set up operating room, prepare and transport patients for surgery, adjust lights and equipment, pass instruments and other supplies to surgeons and surgeons’ assistants, hold retractors, cut sutures, and help count sponges, needles, supplies, and instruments. Excludes “Surgical Assistants” (29-9093).
Survey Researchers 19-3022 Plan, develop, or conduct surveys. May analyze and interpret the meaning of survey data, determine survey objectives, or suggest or test question wording. Includes social scientists who primarily design questionnaires or supervise survey teams. Excludes “Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists” (13-1161) and “Statisticians” (15-2041).
Surveying and Mapping Technicians 17-3031 Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetrist, to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features. May verify accuracy and completeness of maps. Excludes “Cartographers and Photogrammetrists” (17-1021), “Surveyors" (17-1022), and “Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers” (19-2042).
Surveyors 17-1022 Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth’s surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.
Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service 43-2011 Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls. May supply information to callers and record messages.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers 51-6052 Design, make, alter, repair, or fit garments.
Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders 53-7121 Load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain, into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships, using material moving equipment. May perform a variety of other tasks relating to shipment of products. May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks.
Tapers 47-2082 Seal joints between plasterboard or other wallboard to prepare wall surface for painting or papering.
Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents 13-2081 Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.
Tax Preparers 13-2082 Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses. Excludes “Accountants and Auditors” (13-2011).
Taxi Drivers 53-3054 Drive a motor vehicle to transport passengers on an unplanned basis and charge a fare, usually based on a meter. Excludes “Shuttle Drivers and Chauffeurs” (53-3053).
Teachers and Instructors, All Other 25-3099 All teachers and instructors not listed separately.
Teaching Assistants, All Other 25-9049 All teaching assistants not listed separately.
Teaching Assistants, Postsecondary 25-9044 Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing instructional support activities, such as developing teaching materials, leading discussion groups, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Graduate students who teach one or more full courses should be classified in the 25-1000 minor group.
Teaching Assistants, Preschool, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary School, Except Special Education 25-9042 Assist a preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher with instructional duties. Serve in a position for which a teacher has primary responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services. Excludes “Teaching Assistants, Special Education” (25-9043).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Teaching Assistants, Special Education 25-9043 Assist a preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher to provide academic, social, or life skills to students who have learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Serve in a position for which a teacher has primary responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services.
Team Assemblers (Optional - Estimates roll up to 51-2090) 51-2092 Work as part of a team having responsibility for assembling an entire product or component of a product. Team assemblers can perform all tasks conducted by the team in the assembly process and rotate through all or most of them, rather than being assigned to a specific task on a permanent basis. May participate in making management decisions affecting the work. Includes team leaders who work as part of the team. Assemblers who continuously perform the same task are classified elsewhere in 51-2000.
Technical Writers 27-3042 Write technical materials, such as equipment manuals, appendices, or operating and maintenance instructions. May assist in layout work.
Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers 49-2022 Install, set up, rearrange, or remove switching, distribution, routing, and dialing equipment used in central offices or headends. Service or repair telephone, cable television, Internet, and other communications equipment on customers’ property. May install communications equipment or communications wiring in buildings. Excludes “Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers” (49-9052).
Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers 49-9052 Install and repair telecommunications cable, including fiber optics.
Telemarketers 41-9041 Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.
Telephone Operators 43-2021 Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls.
Tellers 43-3071 Receive and pay out money. Keep records of money and negotiable instruments involved in a financial institution’s various transactions.
Terrazzo Workers and Finishers 47-2053 Apply a mixture of cement, sand, pigment, or marble chips to floors, stairways, and cabinet fixtures to fashion durable and decorative surfaces.
Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders 51-6061 Operate or tend machines to bleach, shrink, wash, dye, or finish textiles or synthetic or glass fibers.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-6062 Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut textiles.
Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-6063 Set up, operate, or tend machines that knit, loop, weave, or draw in textiles. Excludes “Sewing Machine Operators” (51-6031).
Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-6064 Set up, operate, or tend machines that wind or twist textiles; or draw out and combine sliver, such as wool, hemp, or synthetic fibers. Includes slubber machine and drawing frame operators.
Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers, All Other 51-6099 All textile, apparel, and furnishings workers not listed separately.
Therapists, All Other 29-1129 All therapists not listed separately.
Tile and Stone Setters 47-2044 Apply hard tile, stone, and comparable materials to walls, floors, ceilings, countertops, and roof decks.
Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters 51-2061 Perform precision assembling or adjusting, within narrow tolerances, of timing devices such as digital clocks or timing devices with electrical or electronic components. Watchmakers are included in “Watch and Clock Repairers” (49-9064).
Tire Builders 51-9197 Operate machines to build tires.
Tire Repairers and Changers 49-3093 Repair and replace tires.
Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers 23-2093 Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies. Excludes “Loan Officers” (13-2072).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Tool and Die Makers 51-4111 Analyze specifications, lay out metal stock, set up and operate machine tools, and fit and assemble parts to make and repair dies, cutting tools, jigs, fixtures, gauges, and machinists’ hand tools.
Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners 51-4194 Perform precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, or grinding of metal objects.
Tour and Travel Guides (OEWS aggregation to SOC broad occupation consisting of 39-7011 and 39-7012) 39-7010 Plan, organize, and conduct long distance-travel, tours, and expeditions; or sightseeing tours through places of interest such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.
Tour Guides and Escorts (Optional - estimates rolled up to 39-7010) 39-7011 Escort individuals or groups on sightseeing tours or through places of interest, such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.
Traffic Technicians 53-6041 Conduct field studies to determine traffic volume, speed, effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors influencing traffic conditions, under direction of traffic engineer.
Training and Development Managers 11-3131 Plan, direct, or coordinate the training and development activities and staff of an organization.
Training and Development Specialists 13-1151 Design or conduct work-related training and development programs to improve individual skills or organizational performance. May analyze organizational training needs or evaluate training effectiveness. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1194) and “Other Teachers and Instructors” (25-3000). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
Transit and Railroad Police 33-3052 Protect and police railroad and transit property, employees, or passengers.
Transportation Inspectors 53-6051 Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people. Includes rail transportation inspectors, such as freight inspectors, rail inspectors, and other inspectors of transportation vehicles not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).
Transportation Security Screeners 33-9093 Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations. May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints.
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Transportation Workers, All Other 53-6099 All transportation workers not listed separately.
Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers 11-3071 Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.
Travel Agents 41-3041 Plan and sell transportation and accommodations for customers. Determine destination, modes of transportation, travel dates, costs, and accommodations required. May also describe, plan, and arrange itineraries and sell tour packages. May assist in resolving clients’ travel problems.
Travel Guides (Optional - Estimates rolled up to 39-7010) 39-7012 Plan, organize, and conduct long-distance travel, tours, and expeditions for individuals and groups.
Tree Trimmers and Pruners 37-3013 Using sophisticated climbing and rigging techniques, cut away dead or excess branches from trees or shrubs to maintain right-of-way for roads, sidewalks, or utilities, or to improve appearance, health, and value of tree. Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners. Works off the ground in the tree canopy and may use truck-mounted lifts. Excludes workers who primarily perform duties of “Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-3011) and “Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation” (37-3012).
Tutors 25-3041 Instruct individual students or small groups of students in academic subjects to support formal class instruction or to prepare students for standardized or admissions tests. Excludes “Postsecondary Teachers” (25-1000), “Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Special Education Teachers” (25-2000), “Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors” (25-3011), and “Self-Enrichment Teachers” (25-3021).
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials 27-2023 Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events. Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations. Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.
Underground Mining Machine Operators, All Other 47-5049 All underground mining machine operators not listed separately.
Upholsterers 51-6093 Make, repair, or replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles.
Urban and Regional Planners 19-3051 Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers 39-3031 Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and helping patrons locate such facilities as restrooms and telephones.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Veterinarians 29-1131 Diagnose, treat, or research diseases and injuries of animals. Includes veterinarians who conduct research and development, inspect livestock, or care for pets and companion animals.
Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers 31-9096 Feed, water, and examine pets and other nonfarm animals for signs of illness, disease, or injury in laboratories and animal hospitals and clinics. Clean and disinfect cages and work areas, and sterilize laboratory and surgical equipment. May provide routine postoperative care, administer medication orally or topically, or prepare samples for laboratory examination under the supervision of veterinary or laboratory animal technologists or technicians, veterinarians, or scientists. Excludes “Animal Caretakers” (39-2021).
Veterinary Technologists and Technicians 29-2056 Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals. Prepare vaccines and serums for prevention of diseases. Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests, such as urinalysis and blood counts. Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines. May assist a veterinarian during surgery.
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SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Waiters and Waitresses 35-3031 Take orders and serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining establishment. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023).
Watch and Clock Repairers 49-9064 Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers. Excludes "Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters” (51-2061).
Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators 51-8031 Operate or control an entire process or system of machines, often through the use of control boards, to transfer or treat water or wastewater.
Web and Digital Interface Designers 15-1255 Design digital user interfaces or websites. Develop and test layouts, interfaces, functionality, and navigation menus to ensure compatibility and usability across browsers or devices. May use web framework applications as well as client-side code and processes. May evaluate web design following web and accessibility standards, and may analyze web use metrics and optimize websites for marketability and search engine ranking. May design and test interfaces that facilitate the human-computer interaction and maximize the usability of digital devices, websites, and software with a focus on aesthetics and design. May create graphics used in websites and manage website content and links. Excludes “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014) and “Graphic Designers” (27-1024).
Web Developers 15-1254 Develop and implement websites, web applications, application databases, and interactive web interfaces. Evaluate code to ensure that it is properly structured, meets industry standards, and is compatible with browsers and devices. Optimize website performance, scalability, and server-side code and processes. May develop website infrastructure and integrate websites with other computer applications. Excludes “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014).
Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping 43-5111 Weigh, measure, and check materials, supplies, and equipment for the purpose of keeping relevant records. Duties are primarily clerical by nature. Includes workers who collect and keep record of samples of products or materials. Excludes “Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers” (51-9061).
Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers 51-4121 Use hand-welding, flame-cutting, hand-soldering, or brazing equipment to weld or join metal components or to fill holes, indentations, or seams of fabricated metal products.
Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 51-4122 Set up, operate, or tend welding, soldering, or brazing machines or robots that weld, braze, solder, or heat treat metal products, components, or assemblies. Includes workers who operate laser cutters or laser-beam machines.
Wellhead Pumpers 53-7073 Operate power pumps and auxiliary equipment to produce flow of oil or gas from wells in oil field.
Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products 13-1022 Buy merchandise or commodities, other than farm products, for resale to consumers at the wholesale or retail level, including both durable and nondurable goods. Analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of merchandise to determine value and yield. Select, order, and authorize payment for merchandise according to contractual agreements. May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products. May negotiate contracts. Includes assistant wholesale and retail buyers of nonfarm products. Excludes “Procurement Clerks” (43-3061).
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Wind Turbine Service Technicians 49-9081 Inspect, diagnose, adjust, or repair wind turbines. Perform maintenance on wind turbine equipment including resolving electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic malfunctions.
Woodworkers, All Other 51-7099 All woodworkers not listed separately.
Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing 51-7042 Set up, operate, or tend woodworking machines, such as drill presses, lathes, shapers, routers, sanders, planers, and wood nailing machines. May operate computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment. Workers who primarily program or operate CNC equipment are classified in “Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators and Programmers” (51-9160).
Word Processors and Typists 43-9022 Use word processor, computer, or typewriter to type letters, reports, forms, or other material from rough draft, corrected copy, or voice recording. May perform other clerical duties as assigned. Excludes “Court Reporters and Simultaneous Captioners” (27-3092), “Medical Transcriptionists” (31-9094), “Secretaries and Administrative Assistants” (43-6010), and “Data Entry Keyers” (43-9021).
Writers and Authors 27-3043 Originate and prepare written material, such as scripts, stories, advertisements, and other material. Excludes “News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists” (27-3023), “Public Relations Specialists” (27-3031), and “Technical Writers” (27-3042).
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X
No occupations begin with the letter "x."
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Y
No occupations begin with the letter "y."
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Z
SOC Title SOC Code SOC Definition
Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists 19-1023 Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management. May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.
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Updated to the 2018 SOC in October 2019.

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